American Passages: A Literary Survey
Slavery and Freedom William and Ellen Craft (c. 1826-1897)
At an early age, both William and Ellen witnessed the break-up of their families as a result of their enslavement. William’s master sold his mother, father, brother, sister, and eventually William in order to pay off debts. Working for a variety of masters, William learned the craft of carpentry and labored in a cabinetmaker’s shop. Ellen, born in 1826, was the daughter of Major James Smith, a wealthy white plantation owner, and Maria, his mulatto house slave. Major Smith’s white wife, annoyed by the presence in her household of her husband’s natural daughter by a slave, gave Ellen to her own daughter, Eliza, as a wedding present. At the age of eleven, Ellen was thus separated from her mother and sent to live in Macon, Georgia, as the slave of her white half-sister.
William and Ellen met in Macon in the early 1840s and married in 1846 in a slave ceremony that was not recognized as legal or binding in the southern states. Fearing the possibility of sale or separation, they decided not to have children while they were still enslaved. Instead, they formulated their bold escape plan, purchasing clothing for Ellen’s disguise and asking their masters for a couple of days of vacation on the pretense of visiting friends and relatives. Since Ellen could not write (teaching slaves to read or write was a criminal offense in the South), she bound up her arm in a sling to discourage officials from asking her to sign documents. She also took the precaution of wearing a poultice on her face to disguise her femininity and to limit conversations with strangers. In this guise of a sickly white man accompanied by his slave, the couple took just four days to reach the North, where they were hidden by a Quaker family on a farm outside Philadelphia. A few weeks later, they moved on to the safer community of Boston.
In Boston, the Crafts were warmly received by abolitionists and by the free black community. They were invited to tour with noted abolitionist William Wells Brown, giving speeches and lectures on the nature and effects of slavery. Later, Brown would fictionalize their escape in one of the first African American novels, Clotel; or, The President’s Daughter (1853). Eventually, William Craft established himself as a cabinetmaker, and Ellen found work as a seamstress. Their comfortable life in Boston came to an abrupt end, however, with the passage of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. Mandating that escaped slaves residing in the North had to be returned to their masters in the South, the law jeopardized William and Ellen’s hard-earned freedom. When Ellen’s former owner dispatched two slave-catchers to Boston to capture and return the fugitives, the city rallied to the Crafts’ cause and drove the slave-catchers out of town. The incident left the Crafts feeling vulnerable, however, and they decided to immigrate to England where they could find safety and asylum.
In England, William and Ellen continued their work lecturing and speaking, profoundly influencing British attitudes toward slavery in the process. They also attended the Ockham school, an agricultural academy in Surrey, where they built on the education they had begun to acquire in Philadelphia and in Boston. While in England, the Crafts had four children and established themselves in business. Between 1862 and 1865, William planned and executed a series of journeys to Dahomey, Africa, to teach Christianity and agriculture to the Africans there, as well as to promote trade. The scheme was not entirely successful, leaving the Crafts deeply in debt.
Unemployed and in financial straits, the Crafts decided to return to the United States in 1869, after the conclusion of the Civil War. They purchased Hickory Hill, a plantation in Savannah, Georgia, hoping to run it as a cooperative managed by freed blacks. Reconstruction-era Georgia proved to be a hostile environment for their idealistic project; a band of angry whites burned down the plantation in 1870, entirely destroying the house, barn, and first planted crop. Still committed to their vision, the Crafts refused to give up. In 1871, they took a lease on Woodville, a plantation outside of Savannah in a county where the majority of the population was black, and opened a school and cooperative farm there. Though they never again had to contend with the kind of overt violence they had encountered at Hickory Hill, they were dogged by perpetual hostility, discrimination, and debt for the remainder of their lives.
Today William and Ellen Craft are remembered primarily for their extraordinary escape from slavery and for William’s gripping narrative of that escape. Published in 1860 in England, Running a Thousand Miles for Freedom was an immediate hit, going through two editions in two years. The narrative offers important testimony about the harshness of slavery, while also challenging common antebellum notions of race, class, and gender.
- William is careful to insist that Ellen was reluctant to cross-dress: “My wife had no ambition whatever to assume this disguise, and would not have done so had it been possible to have obtained our liberty by more simple means.” While he ironically refers to Ellen as “my master” throughout the narrative, he also highlights moments when she “breaks character” and behaves in a stereotypically feminine manner, acting “nervous and timid,” “shrinking back” at crucial moments, and bursting into “violent sobs.” Ask students to consider why William might have been invested in asserting his wife’s normative femininity in this way. What kinds of tensions does her assumption of male clothing introduce into the narrative? What kinds of challenges does her “masculine” role pose for William as both her husband and the narrator of their story?
- Although other abolitionists printed versions of the Crafts’ story, William Craft did not publish his own narrative until 1860, twelve years after their escape. Many critics speculate that Craft waited so long because he wanted to write with complete independence–that is, without the aid of a white ghost-writer or editor–and needed to acquire literary skills in order to do so. Once you have provided students with this background information, ask them to think about the role of literacy in the narrative. Ellen’s inability to write is figured as an important issue, and the Crafts’ reading and writing lessons with the Quaker family in Philadelphia function as an important turning point in their quest for freedom. How are literacy and freedom bound together? What does literacy have to do with identity for the Crafts? How does the Crafts’ attitude toward literacy compare to Frederick Douglass’s?
- Comprehension: What kinds of boundaries, both literal and symbolic, do the Crafts cross in the course of their escape? Which boundaries do they seem to have the most difficulty crossing?
- Context: How does Ellen Craft’s story compare with the “tragic mulatta” figure as she is characterized in Uncle Tom’s Cabin? How does Ellen Craft’s use of cross-dressing compare to Harriet Jacobs’s use of cross-dressing in her escape? How does Craft’s decision to “pass” for white complicate her narrative?
- Exploration: Cross-dressing was a popular motif in early national literature (a famous example is the narrative of Deborah Sampson, who served as a soldier in the Revolutionary War). Can you think of other American texts that involve stories of cross-dressing or racial passing? How do these acts of disguise take on different meanings over time? How do they challenge our assumptions about race and gender?
- Exploration: Feminist and queer theorist Marjorie Garber has argued that cross-dressing is usually a sign of “category crisis” in a text. That is, it points to the artificiality of other socially constructed categories such as race, class, or sexuality. What categories besides gender are “in crisis” in the Crafts’ narrative?
Selected Archive Items
 Anonymous, The Death of Clotel (1853),
courtesy of William Wells Brown, Clotel; or, The President’s Daughter: A Narrative of Slave Life in the United States (1853).
One of the first published novels by an African American, Clotel told the story of a slave daughter of Thomas Jefferson and contained Brown’s own personal slave narrative, as well as a fictionalized version of William and Ellen Craft’s story.
 Anonymous, Ellen Craft the Fugitive Slave (1860),
frontispiece of Running a Thousand Miles for Freedom, by William Craft.
The light-skinned Ellen Craft escaped from slavery with her husband, William, by posing as a white man and her husband’s master, symbolizing how slavery and resistance disrupted the “normal” social order.
 Anonymous, William Craft (1879),
courtesy of the Library of Congress, Rare Books and Special Collections Division.
This illustration from William Still’s The Underground Railroad shows a dignified Craft in respectable middle-class dress, contrasting with the appearance he needed to escape from slavery.
 Anonymous, Ellen Craft (1879),
courtesy of the Library of Congress, Rare Books and Special Collections Division.
In this portrait published in William Still’s The Underground Railroad, Craft is shown in conservative female dress and with her light skin.
 William Craft, Running a Thousand Miles for Freedom (1860).
Excerpts from Craft’s slave narrative.
William and Ellen Craft are remembered primarily for this gripping narrative of their extraordinary escape from slavery. Published in 1860 in England, Running a Thousand Miles for Freedom was an immediate bestseller, going through two editions in two years.
Unit 3 Utopian Promise
Instructor Overview, Bibliography & Resources, Glossary and Learning Objectives for this Unit.