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Chemistry: Challenges and Solutions

Sadi Carnot and the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics (animation)

In 1824, a French engineer, Sadi Carnot, theorized an idealized engine, one in which no heat was lost through the engine walls or from friction of the moving parts. Carnot realized that even in this hypothetical model, it is impossible to convert all of the heat into useful work, leading to the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

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Chemistry: Challenges and Solutions


Produced by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. 2014.
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