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NASA’s BEST Students: K – Grade 2

Build a Solar Oven

Design an oven to cook while on the moon.

K-2 Learners will be guided through a series of challenges that follow the engineering design cycle. Join NASA on an adventure through solving an engineering challenge to create an oven using the energy from the sun.

To demonstrate an understanding of the Engineering Design Process while utilizing each stage to successfully complete a team challenge.

To design and build a solar box cooker, and test it to see if it works well enough to make S’mores.

Experimental design, measuring and data analysis


  • Thermometers
  • Stopwatches
  • Cardboard box (no smaller than 40cm wide)
  • Aluminum pie pans
  • Aluminum foil
  • Black construction paper
  • Plexiglass or plastic wrap big enough to cover the box
  • Sunshine, OR gooseneck lamp with 100 W bulb
  • S’mores fixin’s (graham crackers, marshmallows and chocolate)
  • Oven mitts or tongs


  • Design Challenge
  • Ask, Imagine and Plan
  • Experiment and Record

It is recommended to take a few minutes at the start of the session to discuss safe handling procedures of the food and of their solar ovens when exposed to the sun: (1) Remind students the importance of hand washing before handling food; and (2) Ovens will get hot and will require the use of protective gear or a tool to manipulate items in and out of the ovens.

Please note: This activity may require two 60-90 minute sessions to complete.


  • Have students watch the video “Living on the Moon“:


  • Share the Design Challenge with the students
  • Remind students to ask questions and brainstorm ideas, then break into teams to create a drawing of a solar oven. All drawings should be approved before building.
  • Tell students that if they succeed in their design, a tasty treat will be had!


  • Hand out the materials to the students and challenge them to build their own solar ovens.


  • Have students follow the directions on the Experiment and Record worksheet to complete their experiment.
  • Once the oven is built, students should place a S’more and the thermometer in the box and cover the top with plastic wrap (or plexiglass lid).
  • Place the box in direct sunlight (students may have to tilt the box so that there are no shadows inside). If it is a cloudy day, use a gooseneck lamp with the 100 W bulb.
  • Assist students when measuring the temperature or removing items from the solar oven once exposed to the sun. Ensure safety measures are in place.


If there is time, have students inspect their designs and the experiment results. Allow teams to rework their design if needed.


Engage the students in the following questions:

  • Whose oven got to the highest temperature?
  • Whose oven melted the marshmallows and the chocolate?
  • Does it make a difference to use actual sunlight compared to light from a lamp? Why or why not?
  • What else could you cook using a solar oven?


This session concludes the NASA Beginning, Engineering, Science and Technology activities. Students now should have a firm grasp of the Engineering Design Process and how it is applied in real applications of our quest to travel to the Moon, Mars and beyond. Fill out a certificate for each student for completing all the steps to becoming a NASA BEST student (see end of guide).