Teaching Reading: 3-5 Workshop
Creating Contexts for Learning Extend Your Knowledge | Creating Contexts for Learning
Classroom routines vary from teacher to teacher, but research suggests that some routines are more effective than others. Read the following statements by Jeanne Paratore and Richard Allington. Consider how these ideas relate to the classrooms you just watched, and to your own classroom and teaching.
I’m really struck by the evidence that suggests that in classrooms where children excel, they spend a greater amount of time reading and writing, than in classrooms where they don’t. That seems to make sense. But, in different classrooms, there are huge variations in the amount of time children spend reading and writing. The amount of classroom time is fairly stable across classrooms, across schools, across states. What differs is the amount of time children spend actually engaged in reading and writing. And that time is dependent largely on the routines and procedures that teachers set up.
–Jeanne R. Paratore
In many schools the official school day–the instructional day–begins at around 8:30 a.m. But at 8:30 a.m. in many schools, children are still on the playground or in the school cafeteria when the bell rings signaling the beginning of the instructional day. At the bell, students begin the process of moving to their classrooms. This often involves lining up and waiting to be released to travel down the hall to enter the classroom. After the children enter the classroom, the teacher takes attendance, collects lunch money, book money, excuses for absences, homework, and other such administrative details. Then comes the Pledge of Allegiance and, often, morning announcements. Finally, at 8:50, the teacher cues the children to take out their books and the instructional work actually begins. Students have already sat for twenty minutes of non-instructional activity–often more time than they will spend actually reading during the remainder of the day.
End-of-day routines often take another 15-20 minutes–now more time has been spent on lining up, unpacking, packing up, and assorted other non-instructional activities than was spent reading and writing combined. For efficient use of scheduled instructional time, teaching would continue until the very end of the official instructional day. If the instructional day ends at 2:30, then 2:30 is when kids should put down their books or journals and begin the management process of getting ready to go home. In many schools we can readily locate another 30-50 minutes every day for reading and writing activity.
We must better organize schools to capture every minute of instructional time. A good first step in planning for improved reading achievement is reworking the organization of the school day so that teachers and children have all of the official instructional time for productive academic work. This may mean rethinking procedures for taking attendance and getting needed information out. If your school or your classroom uses many minutes of official instructional time for non-instructional activities, you have located one area to begin your efforts for improving organizational efficiency.
Excerpted from What Really Matters for Struggling Readers: Designing Research-Based Programs, 35-36. New York: Addison Wesley, 2001.
Describe a typical day in your class.
- How much time is devoted to non-instructional routines in the morning, at lunchtime, and at the end of the day?
- How can you change these routines so that additional time is devoted to literacy instruction and practice?
- If you cannot change the school routines, what tasks or activities can students engage in during the early morning, noon, and end-of day times? How can you structure these times so that reading and writing are not interrupted? What routines do you have in place throughout the day that allow time for working with students who struggle in reading and writing? What do you do during this time?
Tips For New Teachers: Creating a Vibrant Classroom
Creating a Vibrant Classroom
The best classrooms are not only efficient, they’re enticing. They are brightly colored and almost magical in terms of their appeal to children. They include lots of books, objects, student-produced work and artwork. They have snakes, birds, and other animals for students to look at and think about. However, building a classroom environment doesn’t happen overnight. If you are just getting started, here are some ideas to consider at the beginning of the year and in the months ahead.
Things to do at the beginning of the school year:
- Supply your classroom library with books of different genres, topics, and reading levels.
- Arrange books by genre, topic, and reading level.
- Create a chart for signing out and returning books.
- Place colorful alphabet letters on a wall for a future “Word Wall.”
- Designate a bulletin board for student work.
- Design a wall space where students can introduce themselves to each other (an “All-About-Me” poster, a letter describing some favorite activities, etc.).
Things to do throughout the year:
- Add section for student book recommendations to the classroom library.
- Add new books to your library based on your curriculum and students’ interests.
- Co-construct colorful charts as you teach reading and writing strategies (see examples above).
- Develop bulletin boards and displays for units of study.
- Add to your Word Wall.
Tips For New Teachers: Grouping and Routines That Support Learning
Grouping and Routines That Support Learning
One of the most difficult decisions teachers face is how to group students in ways that promote reading, writing, and talking. Below are some ideas for building a framework of grouping options and related routines throughout the school year.
|Grouping Option||What It Entails||Teacher Responsibility||Routines|
|Reading Workshop (Independent Reading)||
|Guided Reading Groups||
|Literature Circles/Book Club||
1.2 Analyze the Video | Creating Contexts for Learning
Watch the video, "Creating Contexts for Learning," taking notes as you watch. After you watch, jot down your answers to the questions below. If you prefer to watch the video in segments, pause the video when you see the next chapter heading.
Supplementary: Grouping for Instruction in Literacy: What We've Learned About What Works and What Doesn't
Workshop 1 Creating Contexts for Learning
This session examines how classroom organization, routines, and grouping practices can enhance literacy skills in the middle grades. Literacy expert Jeanne Paratore discusses teaching strategies that foster reading and writing skills. Classroom examples illustrate the research.
Workshop 2 Fluency and Word Study
This session focuses on how students in the middle grades develop vocabulary and reading fluency. Literacy expert Richard Allington discusses specific teaching strategies that help build fluency and vocabulary, illustrated by classroom examples.
Workshop 3 Building Comprehension
Comprehending text is one of the main goals of reading. In this session, literacy expert Nell Duke discusses what good readers do and strategies teachers can use to help students build comprehension skills. Classroom footage provides examples of comprehension strategies.
Workshop 4 Writing
This workshop examines the relationship between reading and writing in the middle grades. Literacy expert Nadeen Ruiz discusses the connections, conventions, and inventions that provide a framework for teaching writing, illustrated by classroom examples.
Workshop 5 New Literacies of the Internet
This workshop focuses on the evolving use of networked technology in education. Literacy expert Donald Leu discusses strategies that help students effectively read, write, and communicate on the Internet. Classroom examples illustrate strategies for using Internet resources in the classroom.
Workshop 6 Teaching English Language Learners
Changing classroom demographics call for a range or teaching strategies. In this session, literacy expert Robert Jim�nez discusses strategies teachers can use to create a successful learning environment for all students, while supporting English language learners. Classroom examples illustrate the research.
Workshop 7 Teaching Diverse Learners
In this session, literacy expert Dorothy Strickland discusses how teachers can meet the diverse needs of readers and writers in their classrooms. Classroom examples and teaching strategies address different aspects of diversity, including culture, language, background, ability, and learning approaches.
Workshop 8 Assessment and Accountability
This session explores assessment, standards, and outcomes. Literacy expert Kathy Au discusses the strategies teachers can use to assess students' understanding in reading and writing. Classroom examples illustrate how students can participate in their own assessment.
Supplementary Workshop 6 - Teaching English Language Learners
Professional Development Workshop Guide