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Making Civics Real: A Workshop for Teachers

This video workshop illustrates an activist approach to the teaching of civics.

Making Civics Real is a video workshop for high school civics teachers. It includes eight one-hour video programs, a print guide to the workshop activities, and accompanying resources online.

Each of the eight programs presents authentic teachers in diverse school settings modeling constructivist teaching strategies.

The goal of this workshop is to give teachers new resources and ideas to reinvigorate civic education.

Workshop Overview

A video workshop for high school teachers; 8 one-hour video programs, workshop guide, and website.

This video workshop for the professional development of high school teachers illustrates a constructivist approach to the teaching of civics, with eight video programs, each dedicated to one teacher’s multi-part lesson. Developed in collaboration with the National Council for the Social Studies and the Center for Civic Education, the video programs, website, and print guide provide the methodology for the effective teaching of civics, and include complete lesson plans of the lessons shown in the video.

Produced by State of the Art, Inc., in collaboration with the National Council for the Social Studies and the Center for Civic Education. 2003.

About This Workshop

Making Civics Real is a video workshop for high school civics teachers, consisting of eight one-hour video programs, a print guide to the workshop activities, and this Web site. Use these components for professional development in two-hour weekly group sessions, or on your own.

The workshop aims to improve civic education across the nation for grades 9–12 through the professional development of civics teachers. Each of the eight programs presents authentic teachers in diverse school settings modeling a variety of teaching techniques and best practices. These methodologies are applied to a variety of social studies courses from a ninth grade government/civics/economics course to a 12th grade law course.

This workshop is appropriate for both novice and experienced high school social studies teachers and recognizes the importance of meeting national standards for civic education. Each lesson references the national standards of the Center for Civic Education and the National Council for the Social Studies.

Workshop Components

Making Civics Real consists of eight one-hour video programs, a print guide to the workshop activities, and this website. Use these components for professional development in two-hour weekly group sessions, or on your own.

Video Programs
Making Civics Real includes eight one-hour video programs. Each program focuses on one classroom where a teacher and his or her students are engaged in a constructivist lesson. Each program combines footage of the lesson being experienced by the students with interviews with the teacher and students about their experiences. The lessons are separated into distinct activities to highlight all the parts necessary to make the lesson work.

Workshop Session Guide
This workshop includes a guide to the workshop activities and discussion questions to help you structure your workshop sessions and make the most of the materials provided. The guide begins with an essay on the benefits of using constructivist methodologies for civic education and provides the following material for each video program:

  • Workshop Overview: a brief summary of the video program, including information on the teacher, the school, and the course being profiled
  • Key Concepts: a list of content-related and methodological issues to keep in mind during the workshop session
  • Before Viewing: a warm-up activity to engage you in the concepts and strategies of the workshop program
  • Watch the Video: discussion questions related to the specific activity segments in the program
  • Before Next Week: an activity that you can do between workshop sessions to practice the strategies discussed

The Website
The website expands on the topics shown in the program and provides tools to help you adapt the lessons and strategies shown for your own classroom. The site also provides extensive resources for teachers related to constructivist methodologies and civics content. The site has three main areas: Workshops 1 through 8, Tools for Teaching and Support Materials.

Workshops 1 through 8:

  • Workshop Session: an overview of the content of that program and the related resources available on the site
  • Lesson Plan: information on the teacher’s method of teaching the lesson, the national standards the lesson addresses, additional resources and the teaching materials used for the lesson
  • Teacher Perspectives: reflections from the teacher in the program that pertain to the lesson and constructivist teaching
  • Student Perspectives: reflections from the students in the program about the lesson and how constructivist teaching strategies help them learn
  • Essential Readings: essays that elaborate on the key strategy or strategies used in teaching the lesson
  • Other Lessons: articles that suggest ways to use the strategies shown with different content

Tools for Teaching:

  • Lesson Collection: a database of the lessons provided in Workshops 1 through 8
  • Teacher Perspectives: a collection of the reflections from the teachers profiled in Workshops 1 through 8
  • Student Perspectives: a collection of the reflections from the students profiled in Workshops 1 through 8
  • Essential Readings: a collection of the essential essays on teaching civics and using constructivist strategies
  • Primary Sources: a collection of primary sources offered on the site
  • National Standards: the National Standards from the Center for Civic Education and the National Council for the Social Studies

Support Materials offer workshop guides to read online, download or print out.

Workshop Titles and Descriptions

Workshop 1. Freedom of Religion
The lesson shown in this video demonstrates the use of questioning strategies and their use in mock trials. It features 9th grade civics students at Southwest High School in Minneapolis, Minnesota, in a simulation of a U.S. Supreme Court hearing concerning a First Amendment case. The case concerns a Texas school district that appealed a lower court decision directing them to discontinue having a student deliver an invocation over the intercom before football games. The case was originally brought against the school district by a group of parents. The Southwest students–who do not know the actual outcome of the case at the start of the lesson–assume the roles of Supreme Court Justices and attorneys. Over a three-day period, students first work in groups to prepare for the hearing as their teacher, Kristen Borges, guides them with strategically asked questions, then participate in the hearing, and finally, debrief their experiences and write a short essay stating their position on the case, including the benefits and potential problems to society of their recommended decision. The methodologies highlighted in this lesson include questioning strategies and mock trials.

Workshop 2. Electoral Politics
This lesson culminates a 12-week unit developed by the national Student Voices Project to engage students in the civic life of their community. It was videotaped just prior to the 2002 mayoral election in Newark, New Jersey. Students divide into small groups to brainstorm and research specific community issues, prioritize the issues studied on the basis of what they have learned, present their findings to the class both orally and through a visual presentation, develop a whole-class consensus on a Student Voices agenda of issues that they think the next mayor should address, and study the candidates’ positions on the issues they have chosen to track. The methodologies highlighted in this lesson include issue identification and consensus building.

Workshop 3. Public Policy and the Federal Budget
Over three class periods, Leslie Martin’s  graders at West Forsyth High School in Clemmons, North Carolina, create, present, revise, and defend a Federal budget, and then reflect on what they have learned. Students participate in a simulation, working in small, randomly assigned cooperative-learning groups. Using such computer applications as PowerPoint and Excel to illustrate their recommendations, they first create a budget for presentation to the class that represents the priorities of the executive branch. They are next introduced to the actual 2001 Federal budget, and in a whole-class, teacher-led discussion, discuss some key concepts involved in creating a federal budget. Students return to their cooperative-learning groups to revise their budgets based on new ideas they have heard in the presentations and federal budget realities that were addressed in the whole-class discussion. Finally, each group presents its revised budget and the remaining students, who have previously each selected a Congressperson whose views are compatible with their own, simulate a Congressional hearing on the budget. This lesson highlights the integration of teacher-directed instruction with small-group work.

Workshop 4. Constitutional Convention
This program shows a  12th grade constitutional law class participating in a simulation in which students create a constitution for the hypothetical country of Permistan. The lesson—which is designed to help students review prior to taking their final exam—was videotaped over three class periods near the end of the semester. Students work in cooperative learning groups to discuss and debate issues relating to the executive and legislative branches of Permistan and then come together as a whole class to participate in a constitutional convention. Simulation is the primary methodology highlighted in this lesson.

Workshop 5. Patriotism and Foreign Policy
The students in this lesson are seniors at the Duke Ellington School of the Arts, a public magnet school in Washington, D.C. that has a strong commitment to integrating the arts with academic subjects. U.S. government teacher Alice Chandler, who finds Socratic questioning and Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences particularly useful in an integrated arts environment, has developed a lesson in which students create a Museum of Patriotism and Foreign Policy. Over three days, the lesson alternates between whole-class discussions, in which the use of Socratic questioning is evident, and committee work, in which students determine what will be placed in the museum, using their particular art major as the basis for their choices. The conclusion of the lesson shows the students’ presentations, including dance, music, theatrical performances, and visual representations, along with rationales for their selections. This lesson highlights small-group work as a constructivist methodology.

Workshop 6. Civic Engagement
This program shows a group of 11th- and 12th-grade students at Anoka High School in Anoka, Minnesota, a suburb of Minneapolis, engaging in a significant way to improve the quality of their community. All students in Anoka are required to participate in service learning in order to graduate from high school. Students begin with simple teacher-defined activities in the ninth grade and become progressively more involved and self-directed as they progress through their high school years. In this human geography class taught by Bill Mittlefehldt, a 30-year veteran of the classroom, students work in teams to define a project, choose and meet with a community partner who can help educate them about the seriousness of the issue and its current status, conduct further research on the identified problem, and present the problem and their proposed solutions first to their peers, and then to a special session of the Anoka City Council. This lesson satisfies state and national standards while helping deal simultaneously with the needs of today’s teens and today’s communities. The primary methodology presented in this lesson is service learning.

Workshop 7. Controversial Public Policy Issues
In this 12th-grade law class at Champlin Park High School in Champlin, Minnesota, JoEllen Ambrose engages students in a structured discussion of a highly controversial issue–racial profiling–and connects student learning both to their study of due process in constitutional law and to police procedure in their study of criminal law. She begins by having students individually complete an opinion poll, which they then discuss as a group. By physically engaging the students (they move around from “Agree” to “Disagree” to “Undecided” positions as the discussion proceeds), they get both a visceral and visual sense of the controversy. Next, working in pairs, they delve into studying a research packet that JoEllen Ambrose has prepared, reading local and national sources on the topic of racial profiling. The next activity pairs students in a structured debate. The framework for this debate, which comes from the Center for Cooperative Learning at the University of Minnesota, is highly specific with regard to both time and task and is designed to have each partnership argue both sides of the issue. Each group of four is next charged with the task of developing a consensus position on the issue and presenting it to the class. A debriefing discussion completes the lesson. The methodologies highlighted in this lesson include role playing and structured academic controversy.

Workshop 8. Rights and Responsibilities of Students
In this lesson, students in Matt Johnson’s 12th grade, two-semester, honors-level law course at Benjamin Banneker Senior High School in Washington, D.C. engage in a culminating activity that helps them review what they have learned over the year and gives them an opportunity to apply the concepts to new circumstances. To begin the lesson, each student takes responsibility for writing and distributing a one-page brief of a Supreme Court case that they have previously studied, and for presenting a summary of the case to the class. All cases involve the constitutional rights and responsibilities of students. Next, students are assigned to groups of three and given a hypothetical case. The hypothetical cases, developed by Matt Johnson, incorporate a variety of fact situations that are similar to previous cases the class has studied. These hypotheticals also relate to student rights cases that were to be decided by the Supreme Court during its 2001-2002 term. Each team represents either the petitioner or the respondent, or is part of the Supreme Court. Students prepare their cases by examining precedents and determining which arguments are most likely to prevail. After a period of preparation, the lawyers present their cases to the Justices, who then retire to deliberate. Justices then present their majority and dissenting opinions, after which the class discusses both the process and the disposition of the case. This lesson highlights the use of case studies for synthesis and analysis.

National Standards

Making Civics Real references national standards developed by two leading educational organizations. You can access the entire standards documents developed by each below.

Center for Civic Education

The Center for Civic Education is a nonprofit, nonpartisan educational corporation dedicated to fostering the development of informed, responsible participation in civic life by citizens committed to values and principles fundamental to American constitutional democracy.

The Center specializes in civic/citizenship education, law-related education, and international educational exchange programs for developing democracies. Programs focus on the U.S. Constitution and Bill of Rights; American political traditions and institutions at the federal, state, and local levels; constitutionalism; civic participation; and the rights and responsibilities of citizens.

The principal goals of the Center’s programs are to help students develop (1) an increased understanding of the institutions of American constitutional democracy and the fundamental principles and values upon which they are founded, (2) the skills necessary to participate as effective and responsible citizens, and (3) the willingness to use democratic procedures for making decisions and managing conflict.

Center for Civic Education’s National Standards for Civics and Government

National Council for the Social Studies

Founded in 1921, National Council for the Social Studies has grown to be the largest association in the country devoted solely to social studies education. NCSS engages and supports educators in strengthening and advocating social studies. With members in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and 69 foreign countries, NCSS serves as an umbrella organization for elementary, secondary, and college teachers of history, geography, economics, political science, sociology, psychology, anthropology, and law-related education. Organized into a network of more than 110 affiliated state, local, and regional councils and associated groups, the NCSS membership represents K-12 classroom teachers, college and university faculty members, curriculum designers and specialists, social studies supervisors, and leaders in the various disciplines that constitute the social studies.

National Council for the Social Studies’s Expectations of Excellence: Curriculum Standards for Social Studies

Profiled Educators

JoEllen Ambrose (Workshop 7: Controversial Public Policy Issues)
JoEllen Ambrose, who has taught social studies for 23 years, currently teaches the ninth grade U.S. government course and the senior-level law course at Champlin Park High School in Champlin, Minnesota. While at Champlin Park, she has been a department chair, worked on several curriculum committees, supervised student teachers, and developed a mock trial team. Previously, she taught political science and geography at a local junior high school and was co-director of the Minnesota Center for Community Legal Education at the Hamline University School of Law. JoEllen Ambrose holds a Bachelor of Science degree with high honors in secondary social studies education from the College of Education at the University of Minnesota and a Juris Doctor (magna cum laude) degree from the William Mitchell College of Law in Minnesota.

Kristen Borges (Workshop 1: Freedom of Religion)
Kristen Borges has been a social studies teacher at Southwest High School in Minneapolis, Minnesota, since 1996. She team-teaches arts and humanities civics with an English teacher and has created an arts-infused interdisciplinary curriculum. She also teaches the senior level International Baccalaureate History of the Americas course, which focuses on the history of Latin America. She has also coached the speech team. Prior to coming to Southwest, Kristen Borges taught for a year and a half at other Minnesota high schools. Kristen Borges holds a Bachelor of Arts in political science from Providence College in Rhode Island, and a Master of Arts in teaching social studies from Bridgewater State College in Massachusetts.

Alice Chandler (Workshop 5: Patriotism and Foreign Policy)
Alice Chandler has been a social studies and special education teacher at the Duke Ellington School of the Arts in Washington, D.C., since 1994. She holds a Master of Arts in special education from the University of the District of Columbia, a Bachelor of Arts with a major in sociology and a minor in history from Howard University in Washington, D.C., and has done graduate work in American history at Howard University. For a number of years, Alice Chandler worked on the Integrated Curriculum Development Project at Ellington, developing social studies lessons for a Smithsonian Institution-developed curriculum. She is also an affiliate of the National Writing Project.

Matt Johnson (Workshop 4: Constitutional Convention & Workshop 8: Rights and Responsibilities of Students)
Matt Johnson is chair of the department of social studies and teaches AP U. S. government, AP comparative government, U.S. government, law, and economics, D.C. history, and global perspectives to students at Benjamin Banneker Senior High School in Washington, D.C. Students in his law class have won the District of Columbia Mock Trial Championship for seven of the past nine years. In addition to his course load, he has served as senior class sponsor, coordinator of Congressional internships, law club sponsor, stock market club sponsor, and outdoors club sponsor as well as coached varsity softball, boys JV basketball, and varsity cross country. Prior to teaching, Matt Johnson interned at some political think tanks in Washington, D.C., and was a legislative librarian at a law firm. Matt Johnson earned a Bachelor of Science in political science from Ripon College in Wisconsin and a Master’s degree in political science at George Washington University in the District of Columbia.

Leslie Martin (Workshop 3: Public Policy and the Federal Budget)
Leslie Martin teaches the two-semester, ninth-grade freshman seminar course on economic, legal, and political systems at West Forsyth High School in Clemmons, North Carolina, where she has taught since 1998. Prior to 1998, she worked in industry—as a senior consultant at Competitive Solutions, Inc., in Raleigh, North Carolina; assistant vice president at Integon Insurance Corp., in Winston-Salem, North Carolina; and an associate at Eli Lilly and Co., in Indianapolis, Indiana. Leslie Martin holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in history from Stanford University, a Masters of Business Administration from Duke University, and a Master of Education degree from Wake Forest University’s Master Teacher Fellow Program. In February 2002, she was named Outstanding High School Social Studies Teacher of the Year by the North Carolina Social Studies Council. She is a National Board of Professional Teaching Standards Certified Teacher.

Bill Mittlefehldt (Workshop 6: Civic Engagement)
Bill Mittlefehldt has worked at Anoka High School in Anoka, Minnesota, since 1973 teaching civics, economics, geography, American history, law, futuristics, psychology, Western civilization, community service, applied problem solving, environmental issues, and quality training. Prior to Anoka, he taught for several years in Riverside, Illinois. Bill Mittlefehldt has made numerous professional presentations at conferences and has published several articles about his service learning experiences in Anoka. He also has been recognized with many awards, including having been twice nominated for Minnesota Teacher of the Year. In the summer of 2000, Bill Mittlefehldt and his daughter paddled for 65 days from Duluth to New York City, a distance of 1,650 miles, to gather stories of civic and sustainable collaboration. Bill Mittlefehldt holds a Bachelor of Arts in political science from Lawrence University in Wisconsin, an Master of Arts in religious studies and a Master of Divinity degree from the Chicago Theological Seminary, and a Master of Arts in curriculum and instructional systems from the College of Education at the University of Minnesota.

Jose E. Velazquez (Workshop 2: Electoral Politics)
Jose E. Velazquez teaches in the social studies department at University High School of the Humanities in Newark, New Jersey. Born in Puerto Rico and raised in Harlem in New York City, Jose Velazquez has worked for the Newark Public Schools since 1987. Since 1997, he has taught United States History, African-American Studies, Latino Studies, Sociology, and Law in Action at University High School. He holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in history from Columbia University in New York, and has completed certification programs in bilingual education at Kern College, master teaching at the Princeton Center for Leadership Training, and critical thinking at Montclair State University, all in New Jersey. Jose Velazquez also has been a cab driver, journalist, student organizer, actor, and neighborhood youth counselor.

Using the Materials

The workshop guide and website provide background, activities, discussion questions, homework assignments, and resources to supplement the video programs and provide a robust professional development experience. They also provide information for facilitators to plan and structure group sessions.

Workshop sessions generally are held weekly for at least two hours. The workshop guide describes pre- and post-viewing activities and discussion to fill out the remainder of the session. The guide also provides homework to expand on what you have learned and prepare you for the next session.

If you are leading a group session, read our Facilitator Guide below and consult the Support Materials for each workshop for more information on planning and facilitating this workshop.

Facilitator Guide

Annenberg Learner professional development workshops and courses provide teachers with content and pedagogical learning to strengthen their professional credentials. Teachers may use Annenberg Learner’s workshops and courses with a study group of colleagues or at regular professional development sessions to review subject content. To support these uses of the materials, each course and workshop has a workshop or facilitator’s guide found on the accompanying website (look for the orange arrow on the main series page) that provides information on the course or workshop structure as well as a script for running professional development sessions. A chapter corresponding to each video includes —

  • background questions for the participants,
  • video discussion questions,
  • hands-on group activities, and
  • references for further study

Any teacher or administrator can step into the role of facilitator. One does not need extensive experience running a workshop for teachers. Just follow the guide and let the group work through the questions and activities. For several series, the correct answers to problems posed are located in the guide, too.

Tips for preparing for and running sessions smoothly:

Create a meeting schedule
A typical schedule includes weekly meetings of two-and-a-half hours. During the first hour, the group watches and discusses the video. During the second hour and beyond, smaller working groups can engage in learning activities as described in the workshop or course guide or they can use the time to connect the content to their own curricula. Groups and facilitators should feel free to design a meeting schedule that works best for them.

Access the video

  • Video programs are streamed on-demand. Search for the series you want by title or choose from subject headings on the home page. Note that the video stream image will be less sharp when projected for a group to watch.

Provide readings, handouts, and worksheets to participants
Many of these are printable documents from the course or workshop website. Participants can print their own copies or the facilitator can print copies for the group. Readings should be completed before the workshop session.

Make note of other materials needed for the session
These include manipulatives, large pads, whiteboards, etc. Specific materials needed are listed in the workshop guide.

Professional development credit and CEUs
Annenberg Learner does not offer professional development credit, CEUs, or certificates of completion to teachers taking the courses or workshops.

Support Materials

The Support Materials for Making Civics Real are available here for download as PDF files. You’ll need a copy of Adobe Acrobat Reader to read the files. Acrobat Reader is available free for download from


Workshop 1: Freedom of Religion

Workshop 2: Electoral Politics

Workshop 3: Public Policy and the Federal Budget

Workshop 4: Constitutional Convention

Workshop 5: Patriotism and Foreign Policy

Workshop 6: Civic Engagement

Workshop 7: Controversial Public Policy Issues

Workshop 8: Rights and Responsibilities of Students



State of the Art, Inc.
State of the Art, Inc. is an Academy Award winning multimedia communications company that specializes in topics related to education and health. Their programs have been nationally broadcast on network, public, and cable television. Some of their education programs include: Educating Peter (HBO) which followed a boy with Down Syndrome through his first year in a regular public school class; Graduating Peter, which continued to follow Peter through high school and into the community; and Learn and Live (PBS) hosted by Robin Williams, which profiled innovative public schools across the country. In addition, State of the Art has produced numerous professional development series for the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD).

Gerardine Wurzburg, Producer, Director
Gerardine Wurzburg has been producing documentaries for over 20 years. Much of her work focuses on issues and trends in the educational system. She has produced numerous series for teacher professional development and many programs advocating for students with disabilities. In 1992, her film, Educating Peter, won the Academy Award for Best Documentary, Short Subject and was used throughout the country to advocate for inclusion of students with disabilities. In 2003, HBO aired her sequel, Graduating Peter, which followed the same young man through high school and into the community.

Ali DeGerome, Project Producer
Ali DeGerome has been producing documentaries at State of the Art for over seven years. Her State of the Art programs include Learn & Live, a public television special funded by the George Lucas Educational Foundational; To Last a Lifetime, an ABC special on making marriage work; and Now is Our Time: Healthy Living for Women 40-55 hosted by Debbie Allen. Her public television special, Positively: The Changing Face of AIDS in America, was nominated for an Emmy in 2001.

Grady Watts, Executive Producer
For the past 20 years, Mr. Watts has developed education materials with the leading professional educational associations, including ASCD (Association. for Supervision and Curriculum Development), NSTA (National Science Teachers Assn.), and Annenberg Media. In video, print and now Internet form, the materials emphasize best thinking in curriculum reform, school management, and teaching methodology.

Conor Linberg, Web Developer
Conor Linberg has created numerous websites for State of the Art that provide visitors with a range of information as well as a visually appealing experience. He has developed sites for State of the Art projects including Now is Our Time: Healthy Living for Women 40-55Self-Management of Chronic Illness focusing on prostate cancer; and Positively: The Changing Face of AIDS in America.

Elissa Ewalt, Associate Producer, Project Coordinator
Elissa Ewalt earned a Bachelors in Broadcasting & Cinema from the University of North Carolina at Greensboro, and an Masters in Film & Video Production from American University. Elissa has worked as both a production assistant and production coordinator on numerous feature films and television programs. In addition to managing operations for State of the Art, Elissa served as project manager on Double Helix to Human Sequence and Beyond, a project for the National Human Genome Research Institute.

Toby H. Levine, Writer and Web Content Developer
Toby Levine has a 25 year career in educational publishing, software development, and broadcasting. As president of TLCI, Toby Levine brings extensive experience with a wide variety of projects in video, audio, print, and interactive media. She produced the online resource, The Guide to Math and Science Reform.

Rick Theisen, Lead Content Advisor
Rick Theisen is a social studies education consultant and member of the National Council for the Social Studies’ (NCSS) Civic Education Task Force. Rick is a former high school civics teacher and past president of NCSS. He was a content advisor for the Annenberg Media program, Social Studies in Action: A Teaching Practices Library, produced by WGBH.

Content Advisors:
Charles Bahmueller, Director, Special Projects
Center for Civic Education, Calabasas, California

Susan Griffin, Executive Director
National Council for the Social Studies

Silvia Isaac, Civics Teacher
School Without Walls, Washington, DC

Phyllis Kannis, National Director, Student Voices Project
Annenberg Public Policy Center, University of Pennsylvania

Tim Rockey, Civics Teacher
Sunny Slope High School, Phoenix, AZ

Image and Document Sources

Note: The following articles and images on this  website may not be reproduced without the permission of the copyright holder.



“Problem-based Learning (PBL) and Socratic Questioning”
Author: Pat Franzen, Madison Junior High School, Naperville, IL
Created for the NTEP II Fermilab LInC program sponsored by Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Education Office and Friends of Fermilab, and funded by United States Department of Energy, Illinois State Board of Education, North Central Regional Technology in Education Consortium, which is operated by North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL), and the National Science Foundation.
Courtesy of the Fermilab Education Office

“Taxonomy of Socratic Questions”
By Richard Paul
Critical Thinking: How to Prepare Students for a Rapidly Changing World, 1993
Courtesy of Fermilab Education Office, Fermilab

“Teaching about the United States Supreme Court”
By Sarah E. Drake and Thomas S. Vontz
Courtesy of the ERIC Clearinghouse for Social Studies/Social Science
Education (ERIC/ChESS)

“Study About Religions in the Social Studies Curriculum”
Prepared by the Religion in the Schools Committee and approved by the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) Board of Directors, revised by the Curriculum Committee 1984,
and the National Council for the Social Studies Board of Directors, 1998
Courtesy of the National Council for the Social Studies approved 1994, 1996

“Controversial Issues in Practice”
By Maria Gallo
Social Education, Vol. 60, No. 1, Jan 1996
Courtesy of the National Council for the Social Studies



Kennedy for President Sticker
Image of JFK from the Political Campaign Literature Collection
Rare Book, Manuscript & Special Collections Library
Duke University

“Cooperative Learning Project: Evaluation Form B, Outcome or Product”
and “Rubric B, Outcome or Product”
From American Pathways to the Present Leson Plans
© 2000 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall.
Used by permission.

“The Student Voices Project”
Courtesy of the National Student Voices Project, Annenberg Public Policy Center

“The 26th Amendment and Youth Voting Rights”
By Wynell Schamel
Courtesy of the National Council for the Social Studies

“Process Guide #2: Building Consensus”
San Diego Unified School District Triton/Patterns Project, 1999
San Diego City Schools, San Diego Unified School District

“Voting Isn’t Enough”
By G. Dale Greenawald
Social Education, Vol. 60, No. 6, October 1996, pp. 333-335
Courtesy of the National Council for the Social Studies

“Voting is Essential”
By Rick Blasing
Social Education Vol. 60, No. 6, October 1996, p. 337
Courtesy of the National Council for the Social Studies

“A Chronology of Growth Suffrage in the United States”
Kids Voting USA, 2000. All rights reserved. Used with permission.



Photo of President George W. Bush with Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham
during a speech about Energy Efficiency at the Department of Energy
Photo by Eric Draper
Used with permission from The White House Media Affairs Office

“A Citizen’s Guide to the Federal Budget, A Budget of the U.S. Government Fiscal Year 2001”
US Government Printing Office

“Becoming a Constructivist Teacher”
By Jacqueline Grennon Brooks & Martin G. Brooks
In Search of Understanding: The Case for Constructivist Classrooms, Chapter 9, 1993, 1999
Courtesy of the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development

“Creating Effective Citizens”
Position Statement, National Council for the Social Studies Task Force on Revitalizing Citizenship Education, May 2001



“Honoring the Learning Process”
By Jacqueline Grennon Brooks & Martin G. Brooks
In Search of Understanding: The Case for Constructivist Classrooms pp. 3-14, 1999
Courtesy of the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development

“Student Exercise in Democracy”
By Cathy Travis
Constitution Translated for Kids pp. 69-72, 75-77
Oakwood Publishing

“Robert’s Rules of Order-Summary Version for Fair and Orderly Meetings and Conventions”
[Editor’s Note: The copyright on the original 1915 version has expired. However, the modifications and enhancements to this work are Copyright 1996 Constitution Society.]
Courtesy of



“Cooperative Learning”
By David Johnson & Roger Johnson,
Courtesy of the Cooperative Learning Center, The University of Minnesota

“Multiple Inteligences: Gardner’s Theory”
By Amy C. Brualdi
Courtesy of the ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment & Evaluation

“America Responds to Terrorism: Press Freedom vs Military Censorship”
Reprinted with permission of Constitutional Rights Foundation,
601 S. Kingsley Drive
Los Angeles, CA 90005.
(243) 487-5590



Northstar Corridor Train Logo
Courtesy of the Northstar Corridor Development Authority
Anoka, Minnesota

“Standards of Quality for School-Based and Community-Based Service Learning”
The Social Studies, Sept/Oct 1997, Vol. 88, No. 5
Alliance for Service-Learning in Education Reform c1995
Courtesy of the Close-Up Foundation

“Service Learning in the Social Studies” (excerpt)
The Social Studies, Sept/Oct 1997 Vol. 88, No. 5
Courtesy of the Constitutional Rights Foundation

Video: “Almanac at the Capitol” 4/25/02
Courtesy of Twin Cities Public Television

Newspaper Clippings in Video Program:
“Students Make Signs in Effort to Save Northstar” &
“Petitioning to Save Rail Line”
Courtesy of the Anoka County Union



“Academic Controversy”
By David Johnson & Roger Johnson
Courtesy of the Cooperative Learning Center, The University of Minnesota

“Creating Strategies and Conditions for Civil Discourse About Controversial Issues”
By John Allen Rossi
Social Education 60(1) pp. 15-21, 1996
Courtesy of the National Council for the Social Studies

“Racial Profiling: A Structured Controversy”
By David Johnson & Roger Johnson
Courtesy of the Cooperative Learning Center, The University of Minnesota



“About the National High School Mock Trial Championship”
Courtesy of the National High School Mock Trial Championship, Inc.

“Legal Thriller Alternative: Trial Research”
The Challenge of Information, 1998
Reprinted with permission of Constitutional Rights Foundation,
601 S. Kingsley Drive
Los Angeles, CA 90005.
(243) 487-5590

“List of Recommended Internet Sites About the U.S. Supreme Court”
Street Law, Inc., 2000
Courtesy of the Minnesota Center for Community Legal Education


“National Standards for Civics & Government” 1994
Center for Civic Education

“Expectations of Excellence: Curriculum Standards for Social Studies” 1994
National Council for the Social Studies

Series Directory

Making Civics Real: A Workshop for Teachers


Produced by State of the Art, Inc., in collaboration with the National Council for the Social Studies and the Center for Civic Education. 2003.
  • Closed Captioning
  • ISBN: 1-57680-679-0