 Teacher resources and professional development across the curriculum

Teacher professional development and classroom resources across the curriculum  # Glossary

## Central Limit Theorem

According to the Central Limit Theorem, the distribution of averages of many trials is always normal, even if the distribution of each trial is not.

## Conditional Probability

Conditional probability determines the likelihood of events that are not independent of one another.

## Expected Value

The notion of expected value, or expectation, codifies the "average behavior" of a random event and is a key concept in the application of probability.

## Galton Board

The Galton board is a model of a sequence of random events. Each marble that passes through the system represents a trial consisting of as many random events as there are rows in the system.

## Law of Large Numbers

The Law of Large Numbers says that when a random process, such as dropping marbles through a Galton board, is repeated many times, the frequencies of the observed outcomes get increasingly closer to the theoretical probabilities.

## Markov Chains

Markov chains are a way to analyze sequences of events where the outcomes of prior events affect the probability of outcomes of subsequent events.

## Normal Distribution

This ubiquitous result describes the outcomes of many trials of events from a wide array of contexts. It says that most results cluster around the average with few results far above or far below average.

## Probability

Probability theory enables us to use mathematics to characterize and predict the behavior of random events. By "random" we mean "unpredictable" in the sense that in a given specific situation, our knowledge of current conditions gives us no way to say what will happen next.

## Problem of the Points

The solutions to this gambling dilemma is traditionally held to be the start of modern probability theory.

## Standard Deviation

The standard deviation is a way to measure how far away a given individual result is from the average result.