Deloria Jr., Vine. Custer Died for Your Sins: An Indian Manifesto. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1988.
At the forefront of the Native American movement to reclaim history, this book describes past interactions between Native Americans and whites, and destroys the stereotypes about Native Americans that exist in society today.
------. God is Red: A Native Review of Religion. Colorado: Fulcrum Publishing, 1994.
This book describes spirituality as an idea that does not necessarily have to be defined in Christian terms, and reminds readers of the connections between humans and the environment.
Francis, Lee. Native Time: A Historical Time Line of Native America. New York: St Martin's Griffin, 1996.
A cross-referenced time line, this book exhibits the history, literature, religion, and politics of Native Americans.
Goebel, Bruce. Reading Native American Literature: A Teacher's Guide. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English, 2004.
This guide for teachers provides suggestions for introducing Native American literature to a class, and includes historical information as well as bibliographies.
Vizenor, Gerald, ed. Native American Literature: A Brief Introduction and Anthology. New York: HarperCollins, 1995.
An anthology of Native American literature from the early 19th century to the present, this book introduces and represents a broad variety of genres as well as the diversity among Native Americans for a wide range of readers.
Witalec, Janet and Joseph Bruchac, eds. Smoke Rising: The Native North American Literary Companion. New York: Visible Ink Press, 1995.
This guide offers a wide variety of both traditional and contemporary Native American literature.
American Indian Heritage Foundation Web site
This general reference features information on different tribes and on programs that work to preserve Native American heritage.
Circle of Stories
This Web site about storytelling traditions includes stories from Native American storytellers as well as lessons and activities for the classroom.
Native Languages of the Americas: American Indian Books and Literature
This site gives a list of books about or by Native Americans, organized by different topics and themes.
National Museum of the American Indian
This Smithsonian Museum site has information about its various branches, museum collections, online collections, and some available educational resources for students.
Oyate is an organization that offers evaluations of works by and about Native American people, as well as workshops that teach educators how to evaluate children's books and resources for biases and incorrect information. Oyate also publishes materials that act as guides for choosing and evaluating literature and educational resources about Native Americans.
Alcatraz Is Not an Island. PBS/ITVS, 2002.
This film's Web site offers information, video clips, and additional resources about the displacement of Native Americans from their land and their attempt to gain back sovereignty by occupying Alcatraz.
The Learning Path. First Run/Icarus Films, 1991.
Integrating documentary, dramatic reenactment, and archival footage, this film tells the story of three Native teachers who play an important role in the education of Native American youth today.
Matters of Race -- Episode 3, "We're Still Here." PBS, 2003.
With a video clip, essay, and other interactive materials, this site focuses on the Lakota people.
Eastman, Charles. From the Deep Woods to Civilization: Chapters in the Autobiography of an Indian. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1916.
Eastman's autobiography for young readers tells of his years in school and how he became a doctor.
------. Indian Boyhood. New York: McClure, Phillips and Company, 1902.
This autobiographical account of Eastman's life for young readers tells about the grandparents who raised him and his reunion with his father, who had been captured in the Minnesota Sioux Uprising.
Hamm, Diane Johnston. Daughter of Suqua. Morton Grove, IL: Albert Whitman, 1997.
Ida lives with her family on an island off the coast of Washington until they are relocated and sent to residential schools by the U.S. government. This novel tells of Ida, her family, and their tribe's struggle to keep their identity.
Harper, Maddie. "Mush-Hole": Memories of a Residential School. Toronto: Sister Vision Press, 1993.
In this children's book, Harper tells of her experience in boarding school and her escape and recovery from her experiences there.
Horne, Ester Burnett, and Sally McBeth. Essie's Story: The Life and Legacy of a Shoshone Teacher. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1998.
Ester Burnett Horne and Sally McBeth collaborate to tell Horne's story for both adult and young adult readers, from her schooling in a residential school to her own experiences as a teacher.
Johnston, Basil H. Indian School Days. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1988.
In a memoir about his time in residential school, Johnston describes not only his resistance to the school but also the astonishing resilience of his cultural heritage.
LaFlesche, Francis. The Middle Five: Indian Schoolboys of the Omaha Tribe. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1963.
This account of Francis LaFlesche's childhood tells of his time at a Presbyterian school in Nebraska during the Civil War and is suitable for young adult readers.
Littlefield, Holly. Children of the Indian Boarding Schools. Minneapolis: Carolrhoda Books, 2001.
Writing for a young adult audience, Littlefield offers factual information, photographs of children from Indian boarding schools, and suggestions on how to critically examine photographs.
Lomawaima, K. Tsianina. They Call It Prairie Light: The Story of Chilocco Indian School. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1994.
Lomawaima lets the students of the off-reservation Chilocco boarding school describe their own experiences facing racism and demoralization at the school, but also the support and sense of community they found with one another.
Reyhner, Jon, and Jeanne M. Oyawin Eder. American Indian Education: A History. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2004.
In this history of the Native American experience, Reyhner and Eder draw on first-hand accounts and primary documents to describe the types of boarding and day schools the U.S. government created for Native American children, the policies of the government toward Native Americans, and the Native American response to the oppression they faced.
Santiago, Chiori. Home to Medicine Mountain. San Francisco: Children's Press, 1998.
This children's book, illustrated by Judith Lowry, tells the story of two boys who are sent to an Indian residential school.
Standing Bear, Luther. My Indian Boyhood. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1931.
Standing Bear, born in the 1860s, writes about his traditional childhood as a member of Sioux society and describes his life up until the time he was sent away to the Carlisle Indian School in this memoir for adult and young adult readers.
Carlisle Indian Industrial School, Carlisle, PA
This very thorough Web site offers a detailed history of the Native American boarding school program, links to primary and secondary resources, and statistics about the students from that school.
Labriola National American Indian Data Center in the University Libraries at Arizona State University
This site has information about resources for Native American boarding schools.
Marr, Carol J. "Assimilation Through Education: Indian Boarding Schools in the Pacific Northwest."
This essay describes the spread of missionary and boarding schools, the practices of these schools, and the effects they had on the students.
Reservation Boarding Schools
This site about residential schools contains useful links and essays about the history of residential schools.
Smith, Andrea. "Soul Wound: The Legacy of Native American Schools." Amnesty Now (Summer 2003).
This article discusses the history of abuse in the Native American residential schools and the effects it has had on the Native American communities.
Transken, Si. "Meaning Making and Methodological Explorations: Bringing Knowledge from British Columbia's First Nations Women Poets Into Social Work Courses." Cultural Studies/Critical Methodologies (February 2005):3-29.
This article focuses on the inclusion of First Nation women's poetry and knowledge in social work courses, and shows many similarities between First Nation women and social workers.
In the White Man's Image. PBS, Native American Public Broadcasting Consortium, and the Nebraska Education Television Network, 1992.
This program discusses the assimilation policy of the United States toward Native Americans, which began in the late 19th century, continued far into the 20th century, and was actually an attempt at cultural genocide.