Facilitator Notes for Primary Sources

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Workshop 1: The Virginia Company
Activity One
Saving the Virginia Company

Divide participants into two groups: a (neutral) London inquiry group and the colonist representatives. Each group should have the same packet of documents. Encourage the participants to reference the primary source documents to support their answers to the questions. Also, provide the groups with the following descriptions.

Group 1 - The London inquiry group has been formed in 1618 to investigate the Virginia Company's past policies and future prospects. It has been appointed by the Company to make future policy recommendations that will, hopefully, make the colony a better investment for shareholders than it had been to date.

Group 2 - The colonists have sent representatives to formulate requests that they will submit to the Virginia Company in London. They have survived a difficult time, but suddenly see hope. There are profits to be had in selling tobacco; some have become landowners, and others hope to be before long. Not everyone is just an employee: Some women have arrived, and a few families have been established. There are, however, some changes the colonists want in order to make the colony a better and perhaps more profitable place to live. What should they ask for?

Each group should come to consensus on two key issues:
1. The state and success or failure of the colony up to this point.
2. Recommendations for further action.

After the small group discussion, have the groups select two to three members to act as representatives in a "Summit on Virginia." At this final group meeting, representatives from both bodies will share ideas and come up with a final recommendation on what the company should do to turn the Virginia Colony into a thriving enterprise. The goal of the recommendation is to come up with a plan to help the colony survive, become more hospitable to the colonists, and make a profit for the parent company in England.

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Workshop 1: The Virginia Company
Activity Two
Evaluate the Virginia and Massachusetts Companies

Divide the workshop participants into small groups. At the end of the activity, groups can share key points they discussed with other groups.

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Workshop 2: Common Sense and the American Revolution
Activity One
What Is Paine's Argument?

A.
Divide the workshop participants into small groups. Each group should have the same packet of documents. Encourage the participants to refer to specific documents to support their answers to the questions. At the end of the activity, groups can share key points they discussed with other groups.

B.
Another way to conduct the activity is to focus on Common Sense using different lenses. Consider discussing the pamphlet using the following themes:
•Economics
•Language
•Engineering/design
•Social/community
•Communication/technology

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Workshop 2: Common Sense and the American Revolution
Activity Two
Interpretations of Common Sense

Divide the workshop participants into small groups for their presentations. Allow sufficient time for preparation, then have groups present their work to one another.

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Workshop 3: The Lowell System
Activity One
Was Lowell an Opportunity or a Dead End?

Divide participants into two groups. Assign one group to argue that Lowell was an opportunity for young women and the other to argue that it was exploitative and a dead end. Each group should review the primary source documents and consider the questions as they prepare for the debate. Allow sufficient time for preparation. (Recommended: 30 minutes)

For the debate, have each team choose four people to argue the question for their team. Other team members will act as advisors to the debaters. The following is the debate procedure:
1. The first speaker for each team presents his/her position. (3 minutes each)
2. The second speaker for each team attacks the case of the opposing team. (2 minutes each)
3. The third speaker for each team offers a rebuttal to the second speakers. (2 minutes each)
4. The fourth speaker closes his/her team's case. (2 minutes each)

Note: Allow up to 5 minutes between speakers to give teams an opportunity to revise their arguments.

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Workshop 3: The Lowell System
Activity Two
What Is Your Final Opinion?

Discuss the questions in a large group discussion.

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Workshop 4: Concerning Emancipation
Activities One and Two
What Did Lincoln Believe? and Did Lincoln Lead or Follow?

Divide the workshop participants into small groups. Each group should have the same packet of documents. Encourage the participants to refer to specific documents to support their answers to the questions. At the end of the activity, groups can share key points they discussed with other groups.

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Workshop 5: Cans, Coal, and Corporations
Activity One
The Most Important Inventions of the 1890s

For homework, consider having participants choose the invention/technology they feel is most important and come to the workshop prepared to discuss their choice with the other participants. During the workshop, you can have participants discuss their choices in small groups or in a whole-group discussion. Participants can use the questions as the criteria for defending their choices.

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Workshop 5: Cans, Coal, and Corporations
Activity Two
Campaign for World's Fair 2010

Divide the workshop participants into small groups. Assign each group one of the following topics to focus their advertising campaign: expansionism, women, or technology and economics. Encourage the participants to use the questions to develop their campaigns. When the groups are finished, have them share their projects with one another. You can choose to arrange the completed posters/advertising copy around the room and have participants do a walk-around viewing of the material or have each group formally present their campaign to the whole group.

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Workshop 5: Cans, Coal, and Corporations
Activity Three
Final Thoughts on the Events of 1893

Discuss the questions in a large group discussion.

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Workshop 6: The Census: Who We Think We Are
Activity One
How Would You Fill Out the Census Form?

Give each participant copies of the census forms from four different time periods. Ask each participant to fill out the forms indicating their correct race/ethnicity. As a whole group, compare results and discuss changing ethnic/racial identification over time.

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Workshop 6: The Census: Who We Think We Are
Activity Two
What Resources Are Needed in a Community?

Divide the workshop participants into small groups for this discussion. Consider having each group focus on a different population in the community, using factors such as sex, race, age, immigrant/later generation, and more. At the end of the activity, groups can share their choices for initiatives with other groups.

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Workshop 7: Disease and History
Activity One
What Should Be Done About Mary Mallon?

Divide the workshop participants into small groups for this debate. Each group can be split in half to argue what should be done about Mary Mallon (a.k.a. "Typhoid Mary"). Two members of each group will argue from the point of view of the public health department, and two members will be friends/supporters of Mary Mallon. Toward the end of the debate, try to reach a consensus/compromise on the issue. At the end of the activity, groups can share their conclusions with each other.

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Workshop 7: Disease and History
Activity Two
Final Thoughts on the Control of Disease

Discuss the questions in a large group discussion.

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Workshop 8: Korea and the Cold War
Activity One
Should U.S. Military Forces Be Sent to Korea?

Divide the participants into small groups to review the documents and prepare presentations/statements/questions for a mock Senate hearing on whether or not to send American troops to Korea to fight a "limited war." Five participants will make short presentations (1 to 2 minutes) to the congressional panel. Speakers roles will be as follows:

• President Harry Truman
• General Douglas MacArthur
• Senator Robert Taft
• George Kennan (Policy planning/State Department)
• Journalist Walter Lippman

The rest of the participants will act as the congressional panel members, with one person designated as the committee chairperson. They will hear statements for and against intervention and should be ready to query the speakers. Speakers should be prepared to field a minute or two of questions from the panel after their presentations. After all of the speakers have presented and answered questions, the committee chairperson will lead the panel in a short discussion and then a vote on whether to commit troops to South Korea on a limited scale.

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Workshop 8: Korea and the Cold War
Activity Two
Final Thoughts on Korea and the Cold War

Discuss the questions in a large group discussion.