Role of Teacher
Nature of Knowledge Universal, objective, and fixed (independent of knower) Universal and "objective" (influenced by knower's prior knowledge) Individually constructed; "objective" (contingent on knower's intellectual development) Socially constructed; "subjective" (distributed across knowers)

Grounding Theoretical Tradition Behaviorism Information Processing Cognitive constructivism Social constructivism

Metaphorical View of Learner Switchboard Computer Naive Scientist Apprentice

Nature of Teaching Activity

Present reality to students

  • disseminate information incrementally
  • demonstrate procedures
  • reinforce habits during independent practice

Help students process reality

  • assemble information-rich environments
  • model expert memory and thinking strategies
  • foster metacognition

Challenge students' conceptions of reality

  • promote desequilibrium with discrepant objects and events
  • guide students through problem solving activities
  • monitor reflective thinking after discoveries

Participate with students in constructing reality

  • elicit and adapt to student (mis)conceptions
  • engage in open-ended inquiries with students
  • guide self and students to authentic resources and procedures

Nature of Student Activity

Replicate reality transmitted by authorities

  • listen
  • rehearse
  • recite

Manipulate reality perceived through senses

  • priactice thinking and memorizing activities
  • develop schemata and automatize skills
  • practice self-regulatory strategies

Experience reality through physical and social activity

  • assimilate information
  • develop neew schemes and operations to deal with novel experiences
  • reflect on physical, social, and intellectual discoveries

Create reality during physical and social activity

  • manufacture "situated" (cultural) understandings
  • actively engage in openended inquiries with peers and teachers
  • reflect on co-constructed meanings