Teacher resources and professional development across the curriculum

Teacher professional development and classroom resources across the curriculum

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Discovering Psychology logo
 
Human Development
History of Psychology
Research Methods
The Human Brain
Therapeutic Approaches
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Introduction Domain Life stages Conclusion

 Infancy and Toddlerhood: Birth - Age 2

 Biological

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Body doubles in height and quadruples in weight

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Neurons grow in increasingly dense connections, becoming coated with layers of myelin, and enabling faster and more efficient message transmission

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Experiences help to fine tune the brain's responses to stimulation

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Motor skills progress from simple reflexes to coordinated motor abilities, such as grasping and walking

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Sensory and perceptual abilities develop rapidly

 Cognitive

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Basic structure of language learned through baby talk with adults

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First communication emerges through crying, then cooing and babbling

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Language skills progress from speaking a few words by age 1, to constructing sentences by age 2

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Awareness of world progresses through immediate sensorimotor experiences to mental representations of events

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Thinking includes concept of object permanence: objects still exist when out of sight or awareness

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Ability to grasp conceptual categories begins; by age 2 numerous definite concepts develop

 Psychosocial

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Emotional responses change from basic reactions to more complex, self-conscious responses

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Independent behaviors increase with parental encouragement around feeding, dressing, and toilet training

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Parents and infants respond to each other by synchronizing their behavior

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Development of secure attachment sets stage for child's increasingly independent exploration

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Ability to relate to playmates emerges by end of period

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Early personality traits, such as introversion and extroversion, develop



 

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