Classical Conditioning: A form of learning in which behavior or conditional response comes to be elicited by a stimulus that has acquired its power through an association with a biological stimulus, such as food, or repetition. Also called Pavlovian conditioning, after the Russian physiologist, Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, whose experiments with dogs revolutionized the concept of memory and response.
Instrumental Conditioning: Learning about the relationship between a response and its consequences.
Law of Effect: The basic law of learning that states that the power of a stimulus to evoke a response is strengthened when the response is rewarded, and weakened when it is not rewarded.
Operant Behavior/Conditioning: A variation on instrumental conditioning in which behavior operates upon the environment and produces consequences, and conditioning manifests as the change that takes place when those consequences have a particular effect.
Reflex: A natural reaction to an external stimulus that causes a physical response. Also an unlearned response induced by specific stimuli that have biological relevance to the organism.