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American Passages: A Literary SurveyUnit IndexAmerican Passages Home
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8. Regional Realism   

8. Regional

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Activities: Author Activities

Charles Alexander Eastman (Ohiyesa) - Selected Archive Items

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[1061] Anonymous, Young-Man-Afraid-of-His-Horses (Tashun-Kakokipa), Oglala Sioux; standing in front of his lodge, Pine Ridge, South Dakota (1891),
courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), Still Picture Branch.
Young-Man-Afraid-of-His-Horses initially resisted white encroachment into Lakota lands. In the late 1870s, realizing that the survival of his people was at stake, he became a friend to the whites and the president of the Pine Ridge Indian Council.

[1089] John S. (Jack) Coldwell, Jr., U.S. allotting surveyor and his interpreter making an American citizen of Chief American Horse, Oglala Sioux (c. 1907),
courtesy of the Denver Public Library, Western History Department.
According to the U.S. government and the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887, assimilation, or cultural conversion to European American ways of life, was the "ideal" goal for Native Americans. For some, compliance with U.S. policies meant the privileges of citizenship. But it was not until 1924 that the United States officially granted all Native Americans U.S. citizenship.

[1843] J. N. Choate, Sioux boys as they were dressed on arrival at the Carlisle Indian School, Pennsylvania, 10/5/1879 (1879),
courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), Still Pictures Branch.
The mission of the Carlisle Indian School was to rid Indian children of their traditional ways and to "civilize" them for assimilation into white culture.

[4219] Western Photograph Company, Gathering up the dead at the battlefield of Wounded Knee, South Dakota (1891),
courtesy of the Smithsonian Institution.
U.S. soldiers standing in front of a wagon full of dead Sioux. A blizzard delayed the burial of the dead. Eventually the Sioux were buried in a mass grave, with little effort made to identify the bodies.

[7418] Anonymous, Boy's moccasins, Lakotah (n.d.),
courtesy of the New York State Historical Association, Thaw Collection.
Reservation period (post-1880) beadwork on these dress moccasins shows how the American flag motif was incorporated into Native American design.

[8507] Charles Eastman, "Turtle Story" (1909),
courtesy of Wigwam Evenings, Sioux Folk Tales.
This collection of Sioux tales by Eastman and his wife, Elaine Goodale Eastman, contains twenty-seven Sioux narratives, including creation stories and animal legends.

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