Prior to reading the selection, activate students’ prior knowledge
by asking the following questions: "Why are manatees
endangered?" "What events led to their placement on the
endangered species list?" "What current events are keeping
manatees on the endangered species list?" "What steps
need to be taken to ensure protection for manatees?" "What
roadblocks prevent protective actions?"
Use the Clue
Collector strategy to focus students' attention on the upcoming
reading selection: Write the following verbs on a handout: counted,
needs, believe, state, added, noted, disagreed, indicated, lessen,
pointed out, placed, comes along, faced, exposed, suspect, died,
collected, shows, declared, bear, range, emphasizes, and underscores.
Ask students to predict how an author writing an article titled,
"Why Manatees Need Protection"
will use these words. Elicit students' personal knowledge and experiences
as they think about the clue words. Encourage students to pair or
group clues together. Ask them to share how the clue words could
be connected or related. Invite students to write statements that
use the clues. Assist students through demonstrations and "Think
Alouds" to understand the process of looking for relationships.
activity with nouns and noun phrases from the reading selection:
T.V. series, Oceanographic Institution, club, injuries, survey,
counts, life savings, toxicological analysis, population, Palm Beach
Post article, tide, carcasses, and gestation. Ask students to work
with a partner to discuss how the words might be used in the article.
Encourage students to connect the nouns with the verbs to generate
ideas. Invite students to share their predictions with the class.
Encourage them to share reasons to support their ideas.
Read "Why Manatees Need Protection."
Revisit the selection by highlighting the verbs from the Clue Collector.
Ask: "How did the author use each of these verbs to reveal
facts about manatee protection?" "What synonyms could
be used in place of these verbs?" Highlight the nouns and noun
phrases in the selection. Ask students: "How were these words
used in the selection?" "How are the words related to
the topic of manatee protection?"
Post the Pre-reading Questions:
" Why are manatees endangered?"
" What events led to their placement on the endangered species
" What current events are keeping manatees on the endangered
" What steps need to be taken to ensure protection for manatees?"
" What roadblocks prevent protective actions?"
Have students work in groups to reread the article and use details
from the text to answer the questions.
Have each group summarize the main ideas and details of the text
by composing a condensed version of the article: Introductory Paragraph
that presents the topic, Bulleted List of key facts, Concluding
Paragraph that restates the topic.
1. What are the significant dangers manatees face?
2. How can these risks could be reduced and/or eliminated in order
to help save manatees?
3. When a species becomes extinct, how does this tragic phenomenon
directly and indirectly impact humans?
How do humans protect themselves from danger? How
do we protect our homes from intruders? How can we help protect
manatee "homes" from dangerous intruders, such as boat
examine author's strategies.)
Revisit the selection to determine author's purpose. "What
was the author's purpose for writing this article: Inform? Entertain?
Express? Describe? Persuade? or a Combination?" Use ideas from
the text to support your answer: # of fact statements, # of opinion
statements, and # of theory statements. Give examples of fact statements,
opinion statements, and theory statements used in the article.