Data to Construct an Explanation
Shows little understanding
Students see evidence as random information not related to his or
her question. They cling to original ideas when confronted with new
Shows some understanding
begin to judge the merits and strength of data they will use to make
explanations. They occasionally use evidence to support predictions.
Shows a solid understanding
use knowledge and evidence they obtained to support their explanations.
They check out explanations against scientific knowledge, experiences,
and others’ observations. They modify old ideas given new information.
Shows sophisticated understanding
All of the criteria from # 3, above, plus:
Students draw conclusions based on evidence and logical argument.
They do not overstate evidence. They can explain errors or weaknesses
in experimentation and their impact on conclusions.