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Invitation to World Literature

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Map & Timeline

You need a map of half the world to chart Candide's journeys. Voltaire sent his hero to every trouble spot on the map in the 18th century, and even to an imaginary haven―El Dorado. Since this kingdom is imaginary, we have followed Voltaire's lead and placed it somewhere in South America, with no further information. Voltaire wanted to expose hypocrisy and ignorance both at home, in Europe, and abroad, in Europe's colonies. Candide ends up finding happiness in Ottoman Turkey―an ironic joke at Europe's expense.

1501
Africans are taken by force to Latin America, by Spanish and Portuguese traders.

1562-98
The French wars of religion between Catholics and Protestants claim tens of thousands of lives.

Mid-late 1500s — The first Jesuits enter Latin America.

1618-48
The Thirty Years' War, between Protestant and Catholic forces, engulfs Europe and millions of lives, particularly in Germany, whose population may have decreased by 30 percent.

1673-82
Jesuit explorers reach and claim what is now Canada as the French colony of New France.

1685
The Edict of Nantes, allowing Protestants civil rights, is revoked by Louis XIV; many tens of thousands of French Protestants (Huguenots) flee to England, the Netherlands, and other Protestant nations.

1689-97 King William's War, the first of three battles between France and England is fought in Canada and New England for control of North America; France wins.

1694 Voltaire is born in Paris, France to a wealthy lawyer and the daughter of a member of Parliament; his given name is François-Marie Arouet.

1702-13 Queen Anne's War takes place, the second battle between France and England for control of North America; mixed results.

1711
After Voltaire graduates from a Jesuit college, his father demands that he become a lawyer. Voltaire, however, aspires to be a writer.

1713 Disgraced for trying to elope with a French refugee in the Netherlands, Voltaire is disinherited and threatened with banishment to the Americas by his father.

1717-8
Voltaire is imprisoned in the Bastille prison in Paris, falsely accused of writing a satiric attack on the king. On his release, he publicly adopts the name Voltaire.

1726
Voltaire is banished to England for his political satires. He meets Jonathan Swift and admires the British system of a constitutional monarchy.

1734
Back in France, Voltaire publishes Philosophical Letters on the English, in which he states that Britain is more politically fair and upholding of human rights than France; the ensuing outrage forces him out of the country again.

1734-50
Voltaire lives in exile on the border of the French province of Lorraine, studying Newtonian physics and contemporary philosophy.

1750
Frederick the Great, king of Prussia, invites Voltaire to live in his household and pays him 20,000 francs a year to write.

1753
Voltaire is forced to leave Prussia when he writes a satire on the President of the Berlin Academy of Science that enrages the king.

1753-8
He lives in Geneva until that city's law against theatrical performances leads him to Ferney, just over the border in France.

1754-63
The French and Indian War is the last of the battles between France and England for control of North America; England wins.

1755
An earthquake that may have been a magnitude 9 hits the Portuguese capital of Lisbon; as many as 100,000 people die from the quake and the ensuing tsunami and fires.

1759
Candide is published.

1778
Voltaire returns to Paris to see the performance of his latest play, Irene. He is received as a hero. He dies on May 30.

Because of his rejection of the Catholic church, Voltaire's friends hurriedly have him buried far from Paris before the church can announce that he is not to be given a Christian burial.

1791
The French Revolutionary National Assembly has Voltaire's body brought back to Paris for a triumphant re-burial in the Pantheon. Perhaps one million people attended the procession of his body through Paris.


© 2010 Map Resources, All rights reserved.
Candide traveled the globe on his quest to find the best of all possible worlds.
© 2010 JupiterImages Corporation
Enslaved Africans working in the Americas
© 2010 JupiterImages Corporation
An engraving of a battle in the religious wars
© 2010 JupiterImages Corporation
A French general of the Thirty Years' War
Jesuit map of New France
© 2010 JupiterImages Corporation
Huguenots fleeing France
© 2010 JupiterImages Corporation
The young Voltaire
© 2010 JupiterImages Corporation
The Bastille prison in Paris
© 2010 JupiterImages Corporation
British satirist Jonathan Swift
First page of Philosophical Letters on the English
© 2010 JupiterImages Corporation
Voltaire studying in exile
© 2010 JupiterImages Corporation
Voltaire reads to Frederick the Great in the palace gardens
© 2010 JupiterImages Corporation
The German philosopher Leibniz, member of the Berlin Academy of Science
The chateau in Ferney where Voltaire lived
Library of Congress Prints & Photographs Division
Engraving of a battle of the French and Indian War
© Bettmann/CORBIS
A 19th century engraving of earthquake damage in Lisbon
The frontispiece of the 1759 edition of Candide
Voltaire as an old man
The body of Voltaire being paraded through Paris