- Patrick Manning, ed., Slave Trades, 1500-1800: Globalization of Forced Labor (Brookfield, Vt.: Variorum, 1996).
- Michael Cranton, "Property and Propriety: Land Tenure and Slave Property in the Creation of a British West Indian Plantocracy, 1612-1740," in Early Modern Conceptions of Property, ed. John Brewer and Susan Staves (London: Routledge, 1996).
- Janet Ewald, "Crossers of the Sea: Slaves, Freedmen, and Other Migrants in the Northwest Indian Ocean, c. 1750-1914," American Historical Review, vol. 105, no. 1 (February 2000) 69-91.
- Anthony Reid, ed., Slavery, Bondage, and Dependency Southeast Asia (St. Lucia: University of Queensland Press, 1983).
FEATURED SOURCE MATERIAL
- Affonso, King of the Kongo
- Tsarist government decree
- Bartolome de Las Casas, Spanish priest chronicler