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AUDIO GLOSSARY


Full Audio Glossary Listing

Click the audio icon to hear pronunciations.


x Abbasid Caliphate Audio Pronunciation of Abbasid Caliphate
Second Muslim government headed by the caliph (religious leader) of the Muslim community; capital was Baghdad, 750 - 1258 CE.

Abd al-Rahman Audio Pronunciation of Abd al-Rahman
Name borne by five princes of the Umayyad dynasty, amirs and caliphs of Cordoba.

Abusua Audio Pronunciation of Abusua
Matrilineal clan through which the maternal life force is passed on to children in the Akan (Ghanaian) belief system.

Aceh Audio Pronunciation of Aceh
Muslim kingdom in northern Sumatra in the seventeenth century.

Achaemenid Audio Pronunciation of Achaemenid
Persian empire of the seventh century BCE.

Afrikaners Audio Pronunciation of Afrikaners
Afrikaans-speaking descendants of Dutch settlers in South Africa.

Afrocentrism Audio Pronunciation of Afrocentrism
History from an Africa-centered perspective.

Akira Kurosawa Audio Pronunciation of Akira Kurosawa
Japanese film director.

Aksum Audio Pronunciation of Aksum
Important trading kingdom dominant in Northeast Africa from fifth century BCE to tenth century CE.

akuaba Audio Pronunciation of akuaba
Akan (Ghanaian) wooden fertility figure in a human shape.

al-Andalus Audio Pronunciation of al-Andalus
Area of Muslim rule on the Iberian peninsula, 711 - 1492 CE.

al-Bakri Audio Pronunciation of al-Bakri
Eleventh-century Muslim geographer who described the kingdom of Ghana.

al-Harawi Audio Pronunciation of al-Harawi
Thirteenth-century Muslim pilgrim who wrote about his travels between Egypt and Iran.

al-Idrisi Audio Pronunciation of al-Idrisi
Twelfth-century Muslim geographer who described the kingdom of Ghana.

Amaterasu Audio Pronunciation of Amaterasu
Shinto sun goddess.

Amerigo Vespucci Audio Pronunciation of Amerigo Vespucci
Genoan merchant and mariner who publicized his travels to South America, 1454-1512 CE.

Amon-Ra Audio Pronunciation of Amon-Ra
Chief god of the ancient Egyptians.

Anasazi Audio Pronunciation of Anasazi
Navajo word for "ancient ones": Native American group in Southwest prominent around 1200 BCE.

Andalusians Audio Pronunciation of Andalusians
People who live in the Andalusia region of southern Spain, from the traditional name al-Andalus.

animism Audio Pronunciation of animism
The belief that personalized, supernatural beings (or souls) inhabit ordinary objects and govern their existence.

Anyang Audio Pronunciation of Anyang
Shang dynasty capital and site of major archaeological excavations.

Arawaks Audio Pronunciation of Arawaks
Indigenous peoples of the Caribbean who migrated from South America centuries before Columbus.

ar-Rundi Audio Pronunciation of ar-Rundi
Muslim poet and theologian who became the leading mystical thinker of North Africa in the fourteenth century.

Asante Audio Pronunciation of Asante
Kingdom of the Asante people, which reached its height after 1700, was located in a gold-producing forest of what is modern-day Ghana.

Ashoka  Audio Pronunciation of Ashoka
Third-century BCE Mauryan king who converted to Buddhism and spread the religion throughout the Indian subcontinent and Sri Lanka.

Atahualpa Audio Pronunciation of Atahualpa
Last Inkan ruler.

Ataturk Audio Pronunciation of Ataturk
Leader and first president of the Republic of Turkey who instituted secular reforms, 1881 - 1938.

Avicenna Audio Pronunciation of Avicenna
Arabic name, Ibn Sina; Muslim philosopher and physician whose medical texts became standard for European doctors, 980 - 1037 CE.

Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini Audio Pronunciation of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
Religious leader who led the revolution against the Iranian shah in 1979.

ayllu Audio Pronunciation of ayllu
Communal organizations or lineages in Andean highlands, especially during the time of the Inka.

Babylonian  Audio Pronunciation of Babylonian
Relating to the city of Babylon, an early city-state in Mesopotamia which existed around 2300 BCE.

bana balute Audio Pronunciation of bana balute
Luba men trained to be state historians able to recite royal geneaologies from memory.

Bantu Audio Pronunciation of Bantu
Name of an African language group; ancestors of Bantu speakers migrated from the Niger-Congo rivers region to the east and south.

Benvenuto Cellini Audio Pronunciation of Benvenuto Cellini
Italian artist and musician, 1500 - 1571 CE.

Bodh Gaya  Audio Pronunciation of Bodh Gaya
Birthplace of Buddhism.

Bodhi tree Audio Pronunciation of Bodhi tree
The tree under which the Buddha reached enlightenment.

Boers Audio Pronunciation of Boers
Farmers of Dutch heritage in South Africa.

bolshevism Audio Pronunciation of bolshevism
Style of Marxist political action begun by V.I. Lenin, who led the second Russian Revolution in 1917.

Bonampak Audio Pronunciation of Bonampak
Classic Mayan archeological site.

Brahman Audio Pronunciation of Brahman
Vedic sacred knowledge, and later the absolute power of the universe in Hindu belief.

bullionism Audio Pronunciation of bullionism
An economic theory that defines wealth by the amount of precious metals owned.

cacao Audio Pronunciation of cacao
Mesoamerican food used now to make chocolate.

Cahokia Audio Pronunciation of Cahokia
Mississippian urban civilization active from 900 to 1400 CE with large mounds in the shapes of animals like snakes.

caliphate of Cordoba Audio Pronunciation of caliphate of Cordoba
Muslim government based in the city of Cordoba on the Iberian peninsula.

campesinos Audio Pronunciation of campesinos
Subsistence farmers in Central or South America.

capoeira  Audio Pronunciation of capoeira
Brazilian martial art developed by enslaved Africans in the 1500s.

Carolingian Empire  Audio Pronunciation of Carolingian Empire
Territory controlled by Charlemagne and his sons.

cassava Audio Pronunciation of cassava
Mesoamerican plant with roots rich in nutritious starch; also known as yucca, manioc, and tapioca.

Çatalhöyük Audio Pronunciation of Çatalhöyük
Early settlement in modern-day Turkey, circa 7000 BCE.

celadon Audio Pronunciation of celadon
Chinese porcelain with a light green glaze.

Chang'an Audio Pronunciation of Chang'an
Chinese capital city during the Han and Tang dynasties.

chattel slaves Audio Pronunciation of chattel slaves
Persons who are the property of another and provide slave labor from birth to death.

Chavin de Huantar Audio Pronunciation of Chavin de Huantar
Early Andean city state from about 1000 to 100 BCE.

Chechens Audio Pronunciation of Chechens
People in Central Asia who are mostly Muslim and fought for independence from Russia after the breakup of the USSR.

Chi Wara Audio Pronunciation of Chi Wara
A legendary farming antelope who taught Bamana ancestors to farm and is honored with a ritual dance.

Chiang Kai-shek Audio Pronunciation of Chiang Kai-shek
General and leader of the Republic of China from 1925 - 1949 who then moved his government to the island of Taiwan; given name Jiang Jieshi, 1887 - 1975.

Chichén Itzá Audio Pronunciation of Chichén Itzá
Mayan palace archaeological site.

Chileans Audio Pronunciation of Chileans
People who live in Chile, a South American country on the Pacific coast.

Chinggis Khan Audio Pronunciation of Chinggis Khan
Mongol leader who created the Mongol empire, 1167 - 1227.

chinoiserie Audio Pronunciation of chinoiserie
Fashion for Chinese themes in western European decoration beginning in the late seventeenth century.

Choson dynasty Audio Pronunciation of Choson dynasty
Korean dynasty, 1392 - 1910.

Choshu Audio Pronunciation of Choshu
One of the key domains in Japan which fought to restore imperial rule in Tokugawa Japan, leading to the Meiji Restoration.

cliometric Audio Pronunciation of cliometric
The use of econometric techniques to study history.

codex Audio Pronunciation of codex
Mesoamerican book that recorded information about astrology, religion, ritual, history, and law; very few pre-Hispanic codices survived the Spanish book burnings.

Constantine Audio Pronunciation of Constantine
Roman ruler who shifted the capital of the Empire to the east, converted to Christianity, and founded the Byzantine Empire.

Copan Audio Pronunciation of Copan
Mayan palace archaeological site.

corvée Audio Pronunciation of corvée
French word meaning labor service owed to the state.

Cuzco Audio Pronunciation of Cuzco
Capital city of the Inka.

Daoism Audio Pronunciation of Daoism
Chinese religion that encourages spontaneity and the development of connections to the Dao, the force balancing the universe.

dar al-Islam Audio Pronunciation of dar al-Islam
The realm of Islam.

Deng Xiaoping Audio Pronunciation of Deng Xiaoping
Communist Party leader who re-established his power after Mao's death in 1976 and then enforced liberal economic reforms in China, 1904 - 1997.

devaraja Audio Pronunciation of devaraja
Cult of a god-king in southeast Asia derived from Hinduism.

dhoti Audio Pronunciation of dhoti
Indian clothing for men consisting of one piece of cloth wrapped between the legs and tucked in at the waist.

diaspora  Audio Pronunciation of diaspora
The dispersal of peoples; translated from Greek as "scattering of seeds".

Domesday Book Audio Pronunciation of Domesday Book
Records of a survey of lands and peoples in the conquered British isles commissioned by William the Conqueror in 1086 CE.

encomienda Audio Pronunciation of encomienda
Spanish royal grant of authority over the labor of Native Americans in the Spanish colonies; the encomienda holder was required to convert the Native Americans to Christianity.

ethnoarchaeology Audio Pronunciation of ethnoarchaeology
Study of contemporary communities along with the archaeological sites that surround them.

ethnobotanist Audio Pronunciation of ethnobotanist
Social scientist who studies historical and contemporary plant use.

ethnomusicology Audio Pronunciation of ethnomusicology
Study of world music in its cultural contexts.

exaptation Audio Pronunciation of exaptation
An organism's utilization of a trait or structure for a purpose other than that for which it was originally selected.

exceptionalism Audio Pronunciation of exceptionalism
The belief that a country's history and destiny is unique.

Ezana  Audio Pronunciation of Ezana
Aksum ruler who converted to Christianity in the fourth century CE.

Fatimid Audio Pronunciation of Fatimid
Muslim dynasty in Egypt and North Africa, 909 - 1171 CE.

Fernand Braudel Audio Pronunciation of Fernand Braudel
Twentieth-century French historian who created the Annales school that analyzes large-scale social change over long periods of historical time.

Francisco Pizarro Audio Pronunciation of Francisco Pizarro
Spanish conqueror of the Inka.

Frumentius Audio Pronunciation of Frumentius
Fourth-century Christian bishop who converted the Ethiopian ruling class to Christianity.

fukoku kyohei  Audio Pronunciation of fukoku kyohei
Japanese slogan during Meiji era, translated as "enrich the country, strengthen the military".

Funan Audio Pronunciation of Funan
Southeast Asian state, first to sixth centuries CE.

futuwwa Audio Pronunciation of futuwwa
Goals of Muslim youth to serve the community with good deeds and humility.

Gerardus Mercator Audio Pronunciation of Gerardus Mercator
Mapmaker from Flanders who in 1569 created a true world navigational chart that bore lines of constant compass bearing.

glasnost Audio Pronunciation of glasnost
Political reforms begun by Mikhail Gorbachev, the last leader of the Soviet Union.

Granada Audio Pronunciation of Granada
Last area controlled by Muslims on the Iberian peninsula.

griot Audio Pronunciation of griot
French term used for oral historian in West Africa.

gynocentric Audio Pronunciation of gynocentric
Woman-centered.

hadith Audio Pronunciation of hadith
Sayings of the Prophet Muhammad.

Hagia Sophia Audio Pronunciation of Hagia Sophia
Church built by Constantius, the son of Constantine, in Constantinople in the early sixth century.

Haile Selassie  Audio Pronunciation of Haile Selassie
Ethiopian king, 1930 - 1974, who attempted to modernize his country; considered the Messiah by Rastafarians.

Hammurabi Audio Pronunciation of Hammurabi
Mesopotamian ruler from 1792 - 1750 BCE whose legal decisions constitute the first written laws in the world.

han'gul Audio Pronunciation of han'gul
Korean phonetic syllabary.

Hangzhou Audio Pronunciation of Hangzhou
Capital of the Southern Song dynasty from 1127 - 1279 on the southeastern coast of China.

Harappa Audio Pronunciation of Harappa
Earliest known culture in Indus valley, 2300 - 1500 BCE.

Harappan  Audio Pronunciation of Harappan
Of or relating to early civilization in Indus valley.

Heian Audio Pronunciation of Heian
Capital city of Japan, 794 - 1185 CE.

hejira Audio Pronunciation of hejira
The Prophet Muhammad's flight to Medina from Mecca in 622 CE which marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar.

Hinduism Audio Pronunciation of Hinduism
Dominant belief system in India with a diverse array of belief systems, practices, and scriptures; originated in ancient Vedic culture at least as far back as 2000 BCE.

Hispaniola Audio Pronunciation of Hispaniola
Island to the east of Cuba where Columbus founded a Spanish colony in 1493; present-day island of Haiti and the Dominican Republic.

Hongshan Audio Pronunciation of Hongshan
Neolithic site in northern China.

Ibn Jubayr Audio Pronunciation of Ibn Jubayr
Twelfth-century Muslim traveler and chronicler of the Crusades.

Ibn Khaldun Audio Pronunciation of Ibn Khaldun
North African Muslim historian, 1332 - 1406.

Ibo Audio Pronunciation of Ibo
People living in southeastern Nigeria since at least the ninth century CE; their language is also known as Ibo or Igbo.

Igbo-Ukwu  Audio Pronunciation of Igbo-Ukwu
Ancient archaeological complex in modern-day Nigeria with sites related to ancestors of the modern Ibo.

Imam Audio Pronunciation of Imam
Muslim religious leader.

Islam Audio Pronunciation of Islam
Literally "submission" in Arabic; religion of Muslims that calls on believers to submit to the laws of Allah as revealed to the Prophet Muhammad, 570 - 632 CE.

Jainism Audio Pronunciation of Jainism
Influenced by the Vedic traditions and texts, Jains strive for an intense ethical life to gain release from reincarnation.

jeliw  Audio Pronunciation of jeliw
Manding (West African) name for bards (griots or storyteller-historians) whose positions were inherited.

Jenne Jeno Audio Pronunciation of Jenne Jeno
Ancient city in sub-Saharan Africa active around 250 BCE.

Jiangxi Audio Pronunciation of Jiangxi
Province in China south of the Yangzi River.

jihad Audio Pronunciation of jihad
Muslim term for either internal struggle against sin or a holy war against infidels.

Joseph Mobutu Audio Pronunciation of Joseph Mobutu
Led a coup d'état in 1965 and then ruled Zaire as the president for life until 1997.

Jurchen Audio Pronunciation of Jurchen
People who inhabited areas of present-day Manchuria and founded a state in northern China; their Jin dynasty ruled from 1115 - 1224.

Ka'aba Audio Pronunciation of Ka'aba
Holy site for Muslims in Mecca.

kami Audio Pronunciation of kami
Spirits dwelling in animate and inaminate places and things in Japanese Shinto belief.

kanga Audio Pronunciation of kanga
Informal piece of cotton clothing common in East Africa.

Karakorum Audio Pronunciation of Karakorum
Capital of the Mongol empire.

kente Audio Pronunciation of kente
Cloth made of handwoven strips sewn together, possibly as early as the twelfth century; designs symbolize virtues and proverbs in what is now Ghana.

khadi Audio Pronunciation of khadi
Home spun cotton cloth promoted by Gandhi for use in Indian clothing to reduce Indian dependence on British textiles.

Khoikhoi Audio Pronunciation of Khoikhoi
Pastoral peoples of southern Africa who interacted with early Dutch settlers in the seventeenth century.

Khoisan Audio Pronunciation of Khoisan
Family of languages spoken in southern and eastern Africa, notable for their use of click sounds.

Khoisan people Audio Pronunciation of Khoisan people
Khoisan-speaking people who today are settled mostly in modern South Africa.

Khotan Audio Pronunciation of Khotan
Place along the Silk Road in Central Asia; also the name of the local people and culture.

Kievan Rus Audio Pronunciation of Kievan Rus
Earliest Russian government, 882 - 1169 CE.

Kilwa  Audio Pronunciation of Kilwa
Island and port city along the east coast of Africa, near modern-day Tanzania.

Kingston Audio Pronunciation of Kingston
Capital of Jamaica.

Koryo dynasty Audio Pronunciation of Koryo dynasty
Korean dynasty, 918 - 1392 CE.

Kubilai Audio Pronunciation of Kubilai
Grandson of Chinggis Khan who founded the Yuan dynasty in China.

kuraka Audio Pronunciation of kuraka
Provincial officials in Andean political systems.

Kwame Nkrumah  Audio Pronunciation of Kwame Nkrumah
First president of the independent nation of Ghana.

Kyûshû Audio Pronunciation of Kyûshû
Most south and westerly of the four main Japanese islands.

Lascaux Audio Pronunciation of Lascaux
Cave in France notable for Palaeolithic paintings and engravings on the walls.

Leni Riefenstahl Audio Pronunciation of Leni Riefenstahl
German film director.

Linda Schele Audio Pronunciation of Linda Schele
American archaeologist and epigrapher who specialized in Mayan archaeology.

Lothal Audio Pronunciation of Lothal
Ancient trading port in South Asia active in the second millenium BCE.

Lu Xun Audio Pronunciation of Lu Xun
Revolutionary Chinese author who satirized Chinese traditional society, 1881-1936.

lukasa Audio Pronunciation of lukasa
Hand-sized memory board carved in wood and often studded with beads and pins or covered with geometric designs that record important historical events for the Luba in southeastern Congo.

Macchu Picchu Audio Pronunciation of Macchu Picchu
Sacred city of the Inka.

Malacca Audio Pronunciation of Malacca
City-state in southeast Asia at the center of sea trade routes around 1500.

Mali Audio Pronunciation of Mali
Second great empire in western Sudan, 1240 - 1500 CE.

Manchus Audio Pronunciation of Manchus
People from Manchuria, northeast of China, who conquered China in the seventeenth century and ruled as the Qing dynasty from 1644 - 1911.

mandala Audio Pronunciation of mandala
From early Indian cosmology, a sacred diagram of the cosmos composed of concentric circles or rectangles.

Mande Audio Pronunciation of Mande
Niger-Congo language group in West Africa associated with formation of the Mali Empire.

Manichaeism Audio Pronunciation of Manichaeism
Religion based on the teachings of the Persian Mani, who envisioned the duality of good and evil, circa 216 - 276 CE.

Mansa Musa Audio Pronunciation of Mansa Musa
Fourteenth-century Malian king who travelled to Mecca for a hajj.

Mao Zedong Audio Pronunciation of Mao Zedong
Communist Chinese leader who helped establish the People's Republic of China in 1949; ruled China from 1949 - 1960 and from 1966 - 1976, lived 1893 - 1976.

Maori Audio Pronunciation of Maori
Indigenous people in New Zealand.

Mapuche Audio Pronunciation of Mapuche
Indigenous people of the southern regions of South America.

Marcus Garvey Audio Pronunciation of Marcus Garvey
Jamaican who founded the United Negro Improvement Association in 1916 to help blacks in the Americas move back to Africa, 1887 - 1940.

Marquês de Pombal Audio Pronunciation of Marquês de Pombal
Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, eighteenth-century Portuguese chief minister who organized the expulsion of the Jesuits from the Americas.

Massasoit Audio Pronunciation of Massasoit
The title of Ousamequin, leader of the Pokanoket and the Wampanoag tribes, who negotiated a treaty with the Pilgrims for their alliance against the Narragansett in 1622.

Mauryan  Audio Pronunciation of Mauryan
South Asian dynasty, 322 - 183 BCE.

Mehrgarh Audio Pronunciation of Mehrgarh
Archaeological site of early agricultural settlement in South Asia, on the Kachi Plain of modern Pakistan.

Meiji Restoration Audio Pronunciation of Meiji Restoration
Political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism.

Mencius Audio Pronunciation of Mencius
Chinese philosopher who taught that human's innate morality is corrupted by society, circa 372 - 289 BCE.

mercantilism Audio Pronunciation of mercantilism
European economic policies of the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries that restricted colonial trade to keep control of indigenous monetary systems.

merikani Audio Pronunciation of merikani
Printed cotton cloth used to make kanga garments for women in Zanzibar, probably introduced by American traders and made from handkerchiefs sewn together.

Meroitic Audio Pronunciation of Meroitic
Relating to the Meroe kingdom under Nubian control.

Mesopotamia  Audio Pronunciation of Mesopotamia
Area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers; Sumer and Akkad were the two earliest societies established in that area.

mestizo Audio Pronunciation of mestizo
Term used by Spanish colonial administrators to describe someone of mixed Native American and European heritage.

metageography Audio Pronunciation of metageography
Set of spatial structures through which people order their knowledge of the world.

Mfecane Audio Pronunciation of Mfecane
Literally "the crushing" in Zulu; the events in southern Africa following Shaka Zulu's rise to power, which was in part possible because of destabilization caused by European encroachment.

Mikhail Gorbachev Audio Pronunciation of Mikhail Gorbachev
The last leader of the USSR whose liberalization programs led to the collapse of communist rule in the USSR and Eastern Europe, born 1931.

Minamata Audio Pronunciation of Minamata
Japanese city whose citizens were affected by mercury poisoning in the 1950s, leading the Japanese government in the 1960s to close down a chemical plant that had been dumping mercury in the sea.

Minas Gerais Audio Pronunciation of Minas Gerais
Brazilian state that experienced a series of mining booms beginning with gold in the late seventeenth century and continuing with iron ore in the nineteenth century.

mit'a Audio Pronunciation of mit'a
The Inka's communal labor requirements based on shared obligations to kinship groups and royal projects.

mnemonic Audio Pronunciation of mnemonic
Strategy or tool to aid memory.

Mogadishu  Audio Pronunciation of Mogadishu
Port city along the east coast of Africa.

Mohandas Gandhi Audio Pronunciation of Mohandas Gandhi
Leader of Indian independence movement and advocate of nonviolent civil disobedience in the face of unjust laws, 1869 - 1948.

Mohenjo-Daro Audio Pronunciation of Mohenjo-Daro
Best-documented ancient city in Indus valley, 2300 - 1500 BCE.

Mombasa  Audio Pronunciation of Mombasa
Port city along the east coast of Africa.

Monophysite Audio Pronunciation of Monophysite
Christians of the fifth to seventh centuries who taught that Jesus was solely divine and did not have two natures, the human and the divine.

Moses Maimonides Audio Pronunciation of Moses Maimonides
Jewish philosopher and physician born in Cordoba and exiled to Cairo where he advised Saladin, 1135 - 1204.

Mozambique  Audio Pronunciation of Mozambique
Modern country in southern Africa.

Mughal Empire  Audio Pronunciation of Mughal Empire
Muslim state that controlled most of the Indian subcontinent from 1526 - 1857 CE.

Muhammad Audio Pronunciation of Muhammad
In Islam, the prophet who received the last revelation from God.

Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Wahhab Audio Pronunciation of Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Wahhab
Eighteenth-century Muslim religious leader who preached a fundamentalist approach to his followers in the Arabian peninsula.

neolithic Audio Pronunciation of neolithic
Describing the time period from 8000 BCE to 3000 BCE when humans formed settled agricultural communities.

Nestorian Christianity Audio Pronunciation of Nestorian Christianity
Eastern form of Christianity that spread to China in the seventh century.

Ngugi wa'Thiongo Audio Pronunciation of Ngugi wa'Thiongo
East African writer.

Nilotic Audio Pronunciation of Nilotic
Group of East African languages and peoples originating in the Nile region of sub-Saharan northeast Africa.

Nnamdi Azikiwe  Audio Pronunciation of Nnamdi Azikiwe
First president of Nigeria, 1904 - 1996.

Olmec Audio Pronunciation of Olmec
Mother civilization of Mesoamerican cultures, 1200 - 800 BCE.

Ousmane Sembene Audio Pronunciation of Ousmane Sembene
West African filmmaker.

Pachacuti Audio Pronunciation of Pachacuti
Inkan ruler, 1438 - 1471 CE.

Palembang  Audio Pronunciation of Palembang
First capital of Srivijaya in the eleventh century.

Palenque Audio Pronunciation of Palenque
Mayan palace archaeological site.

Panhellenic  Audio Pronunciation of Panhellenic
Literally "all Greek"; of or relating to all of Greece or the area where ancient Greek culture dominated.

Patrice Lumumba Audio Pronunciation of Patrice Lumumba
Pan-Africanist and first prime minister of the independent Congo in 1960; he was killed in January 1961 by troops loyal to his opponent Joseph Mobutu.

Pax Mongolica Audio Pronunciation of Pax Mongolica
The peace created by the extension of Mongol rule across Eurasia.

Pedro de Cieza de Leon Audio Pronunciation of Pedro de Cieza de Leon
Spanish conquistador who wrote Chronicles of the Inkas, 1540 CE.

perestroika Audio Pronunciation of perestroika
Economic reforms begun by Mikhail Gorbachev, the last leader of the USSR.

Pierre de Coubertin  Audio Pronunciation of Pierre de Coubertin
French citizen who re-established the Olympic games in 1896.

Plaza de Mayo Audio Pronunciation of Plaza de Mayo
Public square in Buenos Aires where Argentinian mothers protested against the government jailing or killing their children without due process.

Popul Vuh Audio Pronunciation of Popul Vuh
Sacred book of the Maya.

Potosi Audio Pronunciation of Potosi
Andean city where the Spanish required Native Americans to mine silver for global trade; one of the largest world cities in the sixteenth century.

Prince Vladimir Audio Pronunciation of Prince Vladimir
Ruler of Kievan Russia; converted to Christianity in 988 CE when he married the sister of the Byzantine emperor.

Ptolemaic Audio Pronunciation of Ptolemaic
Map with ancient Greek perspective.

Ptolemy Audio Pronunciation of Ptolemy
Ancient Greek geographer.

pyrotechnology Audio Pronunciation of pyrotechnology
Any technology that uses fire, such as metallurgy or pottery making.

Qidan  Audio Pronunciation of Qidan
An ethnic group inhabiting the northeast of China who established the Liao state in the tenth century.

Qin Audio Pronunciation of Qin
State in northwest China that unified China for the first time during the Qin dynasty, 221 - 210 BCE.

Qing Audio Pronunciation of Qing
Chinese dynasty, 1688 - 1911 CE.

Quanzhou  Audio Pronunciation of Quanzhou
Port in southern China.

Quiche Audio Pronunciation of Quiche
Dialect of Mayan language.

quipus  Audio Pronunciation of quipus
Knotted cords used by the Inka to keep government records.

Rabindranath Tagore  Audio Pronunciation of Rabindranath Tagore
Indian political leader, philosopher, and poet who won the Nobel Prize for literature in 1913.

Raj Audio Pronunciation of Raj
Period of British rule of the Indian subcontinent, 1857 - 1947.

Rastafarianism Audio Pronunciation of Rastafarianism
Religion developed in Jamaica that promotes the belief that Ras Tafari (Haile Selassie) is the Messiah and that Africa (especially Ethiopia) is the promised land.

reggae Audio Pronunciation of reggae
Jamaican music style influenced by African musical traditions.

Safavid Empire  Audio Pronunciation of Safavid Empire
Iranian kingdom established by Ismail Safavi, who declared Iran (Persia) a Shi'ite state, 1502 - 1722.

sahel Audio Pronunciation of sahel
Arabic word meaning "shore" and referring to the dry area between the Sahara and the forests or grasslands south of it.

Saint Domingue Audio Pronunciation of Saint Domingue
French Caribbean colony that produced sugar and considerable revenue for France; it later became the independent nation of Haiti.

Samarqand  Audio Pronunciation of Samarqand
Trade city along the Silk Road in Central Asia.

Sapa Inka Audio Pronunciation of Sapa Inka
The sole ruler of the Inka, believed to be a descendant of the sun god and his representative on earth; his cult became the center of the Inkan state religion.

sari Audio Pronunciation of sari
Indian clothing for women consisting of one long piece of cloth wrapped around the body and over the shoulder.

sarong Audio Pronunciation of sarong
Clothing for men and women in Southeast Asia consisting of one piece of cloth wrapped around the waist.

Sassanian Audio Pronunciation of Sassanian
Last Persian empire before the expansion of Arab peoples, 224 - 642 CE.

Sassanid Audio Pronunciation of Sassanid
Persian government, 224 - 651 CE.

satyagraha Audio Pronunciation of satyagraha
Political philosophy of Gandhi that stressed nonviolent resistance.

Satyajit Ray Audio Pronunciation of Satyajit Ray
Indian film director.

sedentism Audio Pronunciation of sedentism
System of settled human groups living in a permanent settlement.

Sejong Audio Pronunciation of Sejong
Fifteenth-century Korean ruler who ordered the creation of a written script for the Korean language.

shaman Audio Pronunciation of shaman
Priest who channels spirits for his or her religious community.

Shang Audio Pronunciation of Shang
First Chinese dynasty, eighteenth to eleventh centuries BCE .

shari'a Audio Pronunciation of shari'a
Muslim law.

shaykh Audio Pronunciation of shaykh
Title for an Arab tribal leader.

Shi'ite Audio Pronunciation of Shi'ite
Muslims who believe that their leader should be a direct descendant of the Prophet Muhammad.

Shi'ite Safavids Audio Pronunciation of Shi'ite Safavids
The Safavids made Shi'ia the state religion of Persia.

Shinto Audio Pronunciation of Shinto
Literally "Way of the Gods"; indigenous religion of Japan.

shoen Audio Pronunciation of shoen
Manors or estates of nobility during and after Japanese Heian period.

shogun Audio Pronunciation of shogun
Japanese military ruler of Japan, circa 1200 - 1868.

shogunate Audio Pronunciation of shogunate
Government of the shogun.

Siddhartha  Audio Pronunciation of Siddhartha
The given name of the Buddha.

Silla Audio Pronunciation of Silla
State that unified the Korean peninsula for the first time in 668 CE and ruled as the Silla dynasty until the tenth century.

Sima Qian Audio Pronunciation of Sima Qian
Chinese historian of the Han dynasty.

Simon Bolivar Audio Pronunciation of Simon Bolivar
Leader of independence movement in South America, 1783 - 1830.

ska Audio Pronunciation of ska
Jamaican music style that influenced reggae.

small metropole Audio Pronunciation of small metropole
City with less than one million residents.

Song Audio Pronunciation of Song
Chinese dynasty, 960 - 1279 CE.

Songhay Audio Pronunciation of Songhay
Last of the three great empires in the western Sudan from the fifteenth to seventeenth centuries.

Sotho Audio Pronunciation of Sotho
Bantu-speaking peoples of southern Africa who fought against European settlement and colonization.

Srivijaya Audio Pronunciation of Srivijaya
Empire in Southeast Asia that controlled trade from the fifth to fifteenth century CE.

Sufis Audio Pronunciation of Sufis
Muslim mystics.

Sufism Audio Pronunciation of Sufism
Mystical approach to Islam.

Sumer Audio Pronunciation of Sumer
Ancient city-state in Mesopotamia which saw the invention of cuneiform writing about 3500 BCE.

Sumerian  Audio Pronunciation of Sumerian
From Sumer, the earliest Mesopotamian society.

Sunjata Audio Pronunciation of Sunjata
Founder of the Malian empire in the thirteenth century; protagonist of epic tales performed by griots.

Sunni Audio Pronunciation of Sunni
The Muslim majority who believe that the community should select its own leadership instead of only looking to direct descendants of the Prophet Muhammad.

swadeshi Audio Pronunciation of swadeshi
Term derived from "swadesh," used to name the boycott of foreign-made goods led by Mohandas Gandhi in British-controlled India.

swadesh Audio Pronunciation of swadesh
Literally "of our own country".

Swahili  Audio Pronunciation of Swahili
East African people who speak Swahili, the Bantu language that draws upon borrowed Arabic words as well as words from other languages spoken by mariners in the Indian Ocean.

Tainos Audio Pronunciation of Tainos
Native Americans who met Ponce de Leon when he and his crew arrived in Puerto Rico.

Taklamakan Desert  Audio Pronunciation of Taklamakan Desert
Forbidding desert in Central Asia around which the Silk Roads took northern and southern routes.

tarikhs Audio Pronunciation of tarikhs
Arabic word for "historical chronicles".

Tashkent  Audio Pronunciation of Tashkent
Trade city along the Silk Road in Central Asia.

Tehran Audio Pronunciation of Tehran
Capital of Iran.

Temujin Audio Pronunciation of Temujin
Birth name of Chinggis Khan.

Teotihuacan Audio Pronunciation of Teotihuacan
Mesoamerican city preceding the Mayan city-states.

Tienanmen Audio Pronunciation of Tienanmen
Chinese public square created in front of the old palace of the Qing dynasty; location of 1989 protests by workers and students for more political participation that were stopped by Chinese military action.

Tikal Audio Pronunciation of Tikal
Mayan palace archaeological site.

Tokugawa Shogunate Audio Pronunciation of Tokugawa Shogunate
Last shogunate in Japan, 1600 - 1868 CE.

Toledo Audio Pronunciation of Toledo
City of the Iberian peninsula under Muslim rule which became the first city taken by Christians in the Reconquista.

Toltec Audio Pronunciation of Toltec
Mesoamerican civilization based on the Olmec.

Toussaint L'Ouverture Audio Pronunciation of Toussaint L'Ouverture
Leader of the Haitian Revolution to free the peoples of the Caribbean colony Saint Domingue from French rule, 1743 - 1803.

Treaty of Tordesillas Audio Pronunciation of Treaty of Tordesillas
Agreement between the monarchs of Spain and Portugal to divide the world between them by drawing a line through the Atlantic Ocean, 1494.

Tripitaka Audio Pronunciation of Tripitaka
Collected sacred texts of Buddhism.

Tuaregs Audio Pronunciation of Tuaregs
Nomadic tribal group who guided much of the trade in the Sahara.

Turkic Uighur Audio Pronunciation of Turkic Uighur
People and culture in Central Asia.

Umayyad Audio Pronunciation of Umayyad
First Muslim dynasty, 661 - 750 CE; capital was Damascus.

Upanishads Audio Pronunciation of Upanishads
Hindu sacred texts about meditation and spiritual debates.

Uruguay Audio Pronunciation of Uruguay
South American country.

Urumchi Audio Pronunciation of Urumchi
Central Asian city and site of archaeological excavations of Caucasian mummies.

Usman dan Fodio  Audio Pronunciation of Usman dan Fodio
Founder of the Sokoto caliphate in West Africa in the early nineteenth century.

Vedas Audio Pronunciation of Vedas
Hindu sacred texts of orally transmitted hymns from about 2000 BCE.

vernacularization Audio Pronunciation of vernacularization
Translating texts into the language or dialect used in an area.

Voortrekkers Audio Pronunciation of Voortrekkers
Dutch descendants who moved away from the Cape of Good Hope in southern Africa when it was under British control.

Wahhabis  Audio Pronunciation of Wahhabis
Followers of nineteenth-century Muslim religious reformer Ibn al-Wahhab.

Wampanoags Audio Pronunciation of Wampanoags
Native American tribe from New England.

Wanka Audio Pronunciation of Wanka
Ethnic group subject to the Inkas.

Wole Soyinke Audio Pronunciation of Wole Soyinke
Nigerian Nobel Prize winner for literature.

wuwei  Audio Pronunciation of wuwei
Daoist term used to translate concept of nirvana into Chinese.

Xhosa Audio Pronunciation of Xhosa
Bantu-speaking peoples of southern Africa who fought against European settlement and colonization.

Xuanzang  Audio Pronunciation of Xuanzang
Chinese Buddhist pilgrim and translator of Indian texts into Chinese, 600 - 664 CE.

Xunzi Audio Pronunciation of Xunzi
Chinese philosopher who taught that men are born evil and must be taught how to live ethically, sometimes through punishments, 312 - 235 BCE (Warring States period).

Yangzi River Audio Pronunciation of Yangzi River
Major river in China that flows throught the middle of the country to the Pacific Ocean.

Yasa Audio Pronunciation of Yasa
Mongol law codes.

Yoruba Audio Pronunciation of Yoruba
One of the main ethnic groups in modern-day Nigeria.

Zambezi River  Audio Pronunciation of Zambezi River
2750 kilometer-long river that starts in southern Africa and empties into the Indian Ocean.

Zanzibar Audio Pronunciation of Zanzibar
Island off the coast of Tanzania controlled by the Omani of the southern Arabian coast.

zeitgeist Audio Pronunciation of zeitgeist
German phrase meaning "the spirit of the times".

Zhang Qian  Audio Pronunciation of Zhang Qian
Han dynasty Chinese explorer dispatched by the emperor on a diplomatic mission to the western steppes in 138 BCE.

Zheng He Audio Pronunciation of Zheng He
Ming dynasty admiral who led seven voyages to the Indian Ocean ports from 1405 - 1433 CE.

Zoroaster Audio Pronunciation of Zoroaster
Also known as Zarathustra; founder of Zoroastrianism, lived in Persia during the sixth century BCE.

Zoroastrianism Audio Pronunciation of Zoroastrianism
Persian belief system that combines aspects of monotheism and dualism; strongly influenced Judaism and Manichaeism.

Zulus Audio Pronunciation of Zulus
Bantu-speaking people of southern Africa who fought against European settlement and colonization.

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