Proton Decay

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© David Kaplan.

A proton contains two up quarks and one down quark. The hypothetical X boson mediates proton decay by turning an up and down quark into an anti-up quark and and anti-electron (positron). The typical time for this decay to occur depends on the mass of the X particle—the heavier X is, the slower the rate of decay. (Unit: 2)