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Visuals: Unit 1


ArgoNeuT contains liquid argon in a type of detector called a "time projection chamber."
Atoms to Quarks
When we try to break the world down to the smallest building blocks of matter, we come up with the twelve elementary particles of the Standard Model.
Cherenkov Radiation
The Cherenkov Radiation sends a ring of light to the edge of the detector that is picked up by photo multiplier tubes.
Energy to Produce Mass
E=mc2 tells us if you have energy you can produce any type of particle with a certain mass, as long as the mass is less than the energy you've created.
The Higgs is believed to be a relatively heavy particle—over one hundred times heavier than a proton.
Higgs Boson and Z Boson
If the Higgs were produced with the Z boson, we would see a bottom quark pair from the Higgs decay, and a high-energy muon pair from the Z boson decay.
Higgs Mass Range
Recent research has determined that the mass of the Higgs is most likely between 115 and 160 GeV.
Higgs Mechanism and Higgs Field
The Higgs mechanism proposes that the whole universe is filled with a field called a "Higgs field."
MiniBooNE Reactions
When a muon neutrino hits an atom, a muon is released. Or, if a muon neutrino has oscillated into an electron neutrino, an electron is released.
Neutrino Oscillation
The neutrino can change back and forth, oscillating as it travels through space. This explains the apparent lack of solar neutrinos.
Neutrino Oscillation and Mass
According to quantum mechanics, in order for neutrino oscillation to occur, the neutrinos must have slightly different masses.
Neutrinos and the MiniBooNE Tank
To run the experiment, muon neutrinos created at Fermilab are sent towards the MiniBooNE tank filled with 250,000 gallons of mineral oil.
Standard Model
The Standard Model of particle physics is the best theory that physicists have to describe these elementary particles and the forces that influence them.
Standard Model with Higgs Boson
First proposed in 1964, the Higgs boson plays a unique role in the Standard Model. It helps explain how fundamental particles obtain mass.
Three Flavors of Neutrinos
There are three different "flavors" of neutrinos in the Standard Model.


bubble chamber
Bubble Chamber
An abandoned bubble chamber at Fermilab.
Early Accelerators
The first cyclotron, the Bevatron, and particle tracks.
Fermilab's CDF Detector
The CDF detector at Fermilab captured evidence for the existence of the top quark.
Fermilab's Tevatron
Aerial view of the Tevatron at Fermilab.
Jan Stark presenting information about the Higgs boson.
Higgs Boson
Presenting limits on the Higgs boson's mass.
Large Hadron Collider
Inside the Large Hadron Collider tunnel during construction.
Director of SLAC (1961-1984).
Panofsky, Wolfgang
Wolfgang Panofsky refused to swear a loyalty oath that he did not belong to the communist party.
The Cloud Chamber
Positron Track from a Cloud Chamber
Carl Anderson, Paul Dirac, and a positron track observed in a cloud chamber.
South Carolina's Savannah River nuclear reactor
Savannah River Plant
Aerial view of South Carolina's Savannah River nuclear reactor.
SLAC's B Factory
Detector under construction at SLAC's B factory.
Large dark spikey ball, the Sudbury Neutrino Detector, located underground in a cavelike area.
Sudbury Neutrino Detector
The Sudbury Neutrino Detector led to the discovery of the neutrino's mass.

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Beta Decay Spectrum diagram
Beta Decay Spectrum
Beta decay spectrum: The puzzling process explained by the detection of the neutrino.
Discovering Quarks at the SLAC
Overview of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.
three generations of fundamental particles.
Fundamental Particles
Three generations of quarks and leptons.
graph of inverse beta decay-black lines and letters on white background
Inverse Beta Decay
The inverse beta decay that revealed the neutrino.
Kaon-Box Diagram
Neutral kaon oscillation.
Matter and Antimatter periodic tables
Matter and Antimatter
Matter and antimatter: An imperfect mirror.
Mesons and Baryons
Mesons and Baryons
The periodic table for heavier mesons and baryons.
Muon Decay
The muon's most common decay path.
Periodic Table of Elements
Periodic Table
The periodic table of elements.
Pion Decay
Pions play an important role in explaining why atomic nuclei do not split apart.
SLAC's Evidence for the J/Psi
Computer reconstruction of a psi-prime decay in the SLAC Mark I detector.
The Standard Model of Elementary Particles
Standard Model
Fundamental particles of the Standard Model.
Thomson's three experiments with the cathode ray tube.
Thomson's Experiments
Thomson used the cathode ray tube in three different experiments.
diagram of the underground neutrino experiment of Raymond Davis, Jr.'s
Underground Neutrino Experiment
Drawing of the underground Brookhaven Solar Neutrino Observatory.