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Visuals: Animations

2D Shear
Simple rules are written that if randomly placed particles touch when a system shears they are moved to a new position when the system is cycled back. (Unit: 8)
AdS/CFT equates a string theory with gravity to a particle theory without gravity. (Unit: 4)
Amount of Matter in a Flat Universe
The amount of matter is determined by measuring the overall height and pattern of the temperature fluctuations. (Unit: 11)
Analogy for the Higgs Mechanism
The Higgs mechanism is analogous to a pond freezing over. (Unit: 2)
Annihilation and Creation of Particles
When an electron and its antiparticle collide, they annihilate and new particles are created. (Unit: 2)
ArgoNeuT contains liquid argon in a type of detector called a "time projection chamber." (Unit: 1)
ATLAS Components
The Electromagnetic Calorimeter, the Hadronic Calorimeter and the Muon Spectrometer, send different data to the trigger. (Unit: 2)
ATLAS Detector
ATLAS, the largest of the LHC's six detectors, weighs around 7,000 tons, is over five stories tall, and is 100 meters underground. (Unit: 2)
Atoms to Quarks
When we try to break the world down to the smallest building blocks of matter, we come up with the twelve elementary particles of the Standard Model. (Unit: 1)
BCS Pairs
The stronger the attraction between pairs, the greater the resistance of the pairs to breaking apart. (Unit: 6)
Behavior of Bosons and Fermions
The quantum mechanical behavior of bosons is always to do the same thing. The quantum mechanical behavior of fermions is never to do the same thing. (Unit: 6)
Biofilm Growth
Growth of a biofilm of the bacteria Bacillis subtilis over four days. (Unit: 9)
Black Holes
One of the strangest predictions of general relativity is that space-time can bend so much that it will produce a hole in the middle of space. (Unit: 4)
Bosons to BEC
When a gas of bosons is cooled to an extremely low temperature, bosons create a new state of matter—a Bose-Einstein Condensate or BEC. (Unit: 6)
Bragg Peak
When energetic protons enter tissue, they release most of their energy as they come to rest. Damage to nearby organs and structures can be minimized. (Unit: 9)
Brane Annihilation
In one model, two branes moving towards each other drove inflation. Their collision ended inflation and resulted in the formation of strings. (Unit: 4)
String theory contains more than just strings: it includes multi-dimensional objects, or "branes." Our universe is made up of a 3-dimensional brane. (Unit: 4)
Cesium Clock
The ability to make precision measurements in a short amount of time has jumped enormously. (Unit: 5)
A population of slime-mold cells forms an aggregate in response to a signaling molecule. (Unit: 9)
Cherenkov Radiation
The Cherenkov Radiation sends a ring of light to the edge of the detector that is picked up by photo multiplier tubes. (Unit: 1)
Composition of the Universe
Atomic matter, the matter we are familiar with, makes up less than 5% of the total density of the universe. (Unit: 11)
Conditional Processing in a Bose-Einstein Condensate
A Bose-Einstein condensate as a novel processor for quantum information. (Unit: 7)
Cooling a Gas of Fermions
A gas of fermions is cooled and the motion of the atoms in a trap is quantized. There is quite a bit of kinetic energy in that gas even at low temperatures. (Unit: 6)
Cooper Pairing
Unlike Jin's initial Fermi condensate, there is a different kind of pairing involved with superconductors called "cooper pairing." (Unit: 6)
Cooper Pairing and Superconductivity
One electron moving in one direction and one electron moving in the opposite direction somehow move in some correlated way. (Unit: 6)
Coupling Laser
Two lasers, a probe and a coupling laser, are used together, allowing a light pulse to be imprinted in the atoms of a condensate. (Unit: 7)
Critical Points
A critical point is the point at which the boundary that separates two stable states of matter disappears. (Unit: 8)
At the center of a cyclotron, a charged particle travels through a magnetic field that curves its path into a spiral and out of the cyclotron at a high speed. (Unit: 9)
Dark Matter Annihilation
Dark matter particles could be their own antimatter partners. Therefore, annihilation could occur if two dark matter particles collide. (Unit: 10)
DNA Helix Animation
The double helix. (Unit: 9)
Electron-Electron Scattering
This movie shows the simplest way two electrons can scatter. (Unit: 2)
Energy to Produce Mass
E=mc2 tells us if you have energy you can produce any type of particle with a certain mass, as long as the mass is less than the energy you've created. (Unit: 1)
Eot-Wash Pendulum Data
The data from the first Eot-Wash Pendulum showed that the inverse square law held true down to a distance of 1/5th of a millimeter, or 200 microns. (Unit: 3)
Eot-Wash Torsion Balance
The Eot-Wash Group redesigned the classic torsion balance, dramatically increasing its precision and pushing the boundaries of what could be measured. (Unit: 3)
Evaporative Cooling
When Zwierlein applies a certain radio frequency to the trapped atoms, it shaves off the hotter atoms and leaves the cooler ones. (Unit: 5)
Extra Dimensions
Above each point in our visible dimensions, a small extra-dimensional space may be hidden. (Unit: 4)
Extra Dimensions
One possible scenario offered by theorists to explain the apparent weakness of gravity is that the universe is made up of more than three spatial dimensions. (Unit: 3)
Fluctuations and Temperature
Coleman could see a very direct and simple relationship with the spectrum of the fluctuations and the temperature of the material. (Unit: 8)
Frequency of Cesium Atoms
Cesium atoms run at a frequency of around 10 billion cycles per second, which corresponds to a microwave frequency. (Unit: 5)
From Fermions to BEC
In Jin's achievement of a Fermi condensate, the key breakthrough was coercing individual fermionic atoms to pair together creating bosonic molecules. (Unit: 6)
Fundamental Strings
String Theory proposes that the building blocks of matter are not point like particles, but instead are vibrating "strings." (Unit: 4)
Gaps in the Standard Model
Perhaps the existence of particles or interactions still to be discovered could help explain gaps in the Standard Model. (Unit: 2)
Geometry of the Universe
According to general relativity, the curvature of space determines how light travels. (Unit: 11)
Gravitational Attraction in Torsion Balance
The gravitational force between the pendulum and the attractor depends on the position of the holes. (Unit: 3)
Gravitational Lensing
Gravitational lensing occurs when a dense object bends space-time and causes the path of a light ray to be deflected around it, producing a distorted image. (Unit: 4)
Haslam Map and WMAP
The Haslam Map measures synchrotron radiation at a radio frequency. (Unit: 10)
Hawking Radiation
According to quantum mechanics, black holes are actually continuously emitting tiny amounts of matter. This is known as Hawking radiation. (Unit: 4)
The Higgs is believed to be a relatively heavy particle—over one hundred times heavier than a proton. (Unit: 1)
Higgs Boson and Z Boson
If the Higgs were produced with the Z boson, we would see a bottom quark pair from the Higgs decay, and a high-energy muon pair from the Z boson decay. (Unit: 1)
Higgs Mass Range
Recent research has determined that the mass of the Higgs is most likely between 115 and 160 GeV. (Unit: 1)
Higgs Mechanism and Higgs Field
The Higgs mechanism proposes that the whole universe is filled with a field called a "Higgs field." (Unit: 1)
High Temperature Superconductors
In the first superconducting material, mercury was cooled to 4 K and 75 years later scientists made a giant leap forward as they discovered many related materials that superconduct at temperatures well above 90 K. (Unit: 8)
Hubble's Law
By charting velocities of galaxies with his own observations of their distances from the Milky Way, he found the galaxies were receding from us. (Unit: 11)
In its first fraction of a second, our universe expanded by a factor of 1030, growiing by a greater percentage than it has in the 14 billion years since. (Unit: 4)
Large Hadron Collider
The LHC is the largest and most complicated scientific machine ever created, generating data to advance our knowledge of the fundamental forces. (Unit: 2)
Laser Cooling 1
The key to laser cooling is that in the process of absorbing a photon, an atom receives a small push in the direction away from the source of light. (Unit: 5)
Laser Cooling 2
As atoms continuously absorb photons coming from one direction, and re-emit photons in random directions, the net result is a loss of momentum. (Unit: 5)
Laser Cooling 3
The cooling inside the chamber takes place in several steps. The ultimate temperature they can reach is limited and they will need to be cooled further. (Unit: 5)
LIGO Interferometer and Constructive Interference
When a gravitational wave reaches the interferometer, it will shrink one arm and stretch the other arm causing the laser beams to be slightly out of phase. (Unit: 3)
LIGO Interferometer and Destructive Interference
An interferometer splits a laser beam and then recombined it. If the waves are perfectly out of phase they cancel each other out—a phenomenon called "destructive interference." (Unit: 3)
LIGO Yardstick
This laser yardstick will be used to detect miniscule, fleeting changes in its overall measured length as gravitational waves sweep over it. (Unit: 3)
The LHC will operate with unprecedented luminosity—the measure used to express the number of collisions of protons per second. (Unit: 2)
Lux Detector
Rick Gaitskell of Brown University is one member of a team of scientists and researchers attempting to strike particle physics gold. (Unit: 10)
Lux Detector PMTs
The nucleus recoils and emits scintillation light which we detect using photosensitive detectors at the boundaries of the container. (Unit: 10)
Lux Detector Water Shield
This multilayered strategy of putting the detector below ground and immersing it in water allows for an extremely low background event rate in their detector. (Unit: 10)
Manipulating a Matter Wave
A matter wave containing the information of a light pulse is manipulated, or processed, using condensates and a laser. (Unit: 7)
Measuring Gravity with Laser Light
To measure how strong gravity is between the two discs, laser light is bounced off the mirrors above the top pendulum disc. (Unit: 3)
Mercury Trap
Removing the electron gives the ion an electrical charge, so it can be suspended in a trap by electric forces. (Unit: 5)
Microwave Wavelength
The cosmic microwave background is leftover heat from the Big Bang. Microwave wavelengths are relatively long compared to optical wavelengths. (Unit: 11)
MiniBooNE Reactions
When a muon neutrino hits an atom, a muon is released. Or, if a muon neutrino has oscillated into an electron neutrino, an electron is released. (Unit: 1)
Nambu-Goldstone boson
A wave in field space corresponds to a physical particle. (Unit: 2)
Neutrino Oscillation
The neutrino can change back and forth, oscillating as it travels through space. This explains the apparent lack of solar neutrinos. (Unit: 1)
Neutrino Oscillation and Mass
According to quantum mechanics, in order for neutrino oscillation to occur, the neutrinos must have slightly different masses. (Unit: 1)
Neutrinos and the MiniBooNE Tank
To run the experiment, muon neutrinos created at Fermilab are sent towards the MiniBooNE tank filled with 250,000 gallons of mineral oil. (Unit: 1)
Neutron Scattering
As neutrons come in contact with magnetic atoms in a material, they scatter, losing kinetic energy. This excites the magnetic fluctuations in the material. (Unit: 8)
Parent Photon Split into Two Daughter Photons
A high energy parent photon is split into two lower energy daughter photons. These photons become entangled in energy, and are in a superposition state. (Unit: 7)
Particle Annihilation
Annihilation is what happens when a particle meets its antimatter partner. (Unit: 10)
Periodic Table: A Canvas
And the canvas that we work with is the canvas of the periodic table. We have something like 92 different elements to play with. (Unit: 8)
Photon as Electromagnetic Wave
A photon, a particle of light, can be thought of as an electromagnetic wave with a particular oscillation frequency. (Unit: 5)
Photon Frequency and Excitement of Atoms
The probability that the atoms will be excited out of their ground state reaches a peak when the photons are tuned to exactly the right frequency. (Unit: 5)
Proton Collisions
When two protons collide, any particle with a mass smaller than the collision energy can be created. (Unit: 2)
Quantum Critical
CeCu6Au is "quantum critical" when it fluctuates between magnetic and metallic phases. Coleman wants to understand this kind of emergent behavior. (Unit: 8)
Quantum-Mechanical Magic Trick
A light pulse is extinguished in one part of space and then regenerated in a different location. (Unit: 7)
Quarks From the Vacuum
As two bound quarks are pulled apart, new quarks pop out of the vacuum. (Unit: 2)
Random Motion
Random motion of gas molecules—bottom up. (Unit: 9)
When the spectral lines shift towards the red end of the spectrum, we infer that the wavelength has stretched. This is called a "redshift." (Unit: 11)
Refractive Index
Light is known to travel through the universe at a constant speed. But light can be slowed down, and is, everyday, in as simple a material as glass. (Unit: 7)
Rotational Entropy
Rotational entropy is related to the number of possible ways particles can be arranged in a structure. The greater the number, the greater the entropy. (Unit: 9)
Scanning Tunneling Microscope
An electric voltage is applied between the microscope tip and the sample. Measuring the current can reveal quantum mechanical features of the sample. (Unit: 6)
Scattering Particles
A combination particle that's a mixture of type A and type B can be turned into a pure type A or pure type B particle when it interacts with matter. (Unit: 2)
Slowing Light
Light slows down in a Bose-Einstein condensate. (Unit: 7)
Standard Model
The Standard Model of particle physics is the best theory that physicists have to describe these elementary particles and the forces that influence them. (Unit: 1)
Standard Model
The Standard Model, the best theory we have to describe the elementary particles and interactions, does not accommodate gravity. (Unit: 2)
Standard Model with Higgs Boson
First proposed in 1964, the Higgs boson plays a unique role in the Standard Model. It helps explain how fundamental particles obtain mass. (Unit: 1)
Standard vs. Super Conductors
In a typical copper cable, there's resistance. In a superconductor, when you send electrons in one end, they come out the other end with no energy loss. (Unit: 6)
Storing Light as Matter
Atoms that make up the condensate are storing the light as matter in a quantum superposition state. This opens up the door for quantum computation. (Unit: 7)
String Theory and Extra Dimensions
String theory proposes as many as seven extra spatial dimensions. (Unit: 4)
Superconductor Properties
Superconductors carry electrical current without resistance and are almost perfect diamagnets (a more fundamental aspect of their behavior), in that they can screen out external magnetic fields within a short distance. (Unit: 8)
Superconductor Properties
Superconductors are materials with two essential properties: They have zero resistance and expel magnetic fields. (Unit: 6)
Superfluid Fountain
A fountain of superfluid 4He. (Unit: 6)
Synchrotron Radiation
Synchrotron Radiation is generated as charged particles, that are moving near the speed of light, spiral around the lines of a magnetic field. (Unit: 10)
Taylor's Experiment 1
Like G.I Taylor, they placed their colloid, the fluid and the particles, inside a couette cell, which consists of a cylinder with another cylinder inside it. (Unit: 8)
Taylor's Experiment 2
When Pine and Gollub ran this experiment they thought that rotating the cylinder would shear the fluid, causing some particles to collide. (Unit: 8)
Three Flavors of Neutrinos
There are three different "flavors" of neutrinos in the Standard Model. (Unit: 1)
Timeline of Type I and Type II Superconductors
The first (Type I) superconductors were cooled at least to 30 Kelvin. In 1986, a new class of high-temperature superconductors (Type II) was found. (Unit: 6)
Top Quarks and Leptons
Top quarks decay into lighter particles, which decay into lighter particles. Physicists must trace back through the decay chain. (Unit: 2)
Trigger and ATLAS Detectors
The trigger filters 40 million events down to 200 every second, using a three step process involving different ATLAS detectors. (Unit: 2)
Type I and Type II Superconductors
Type I superconductors expel the magnetic field uniformly. Type II allow the magnetic field to penetrate in quantized packets called "vortices." (Unit: 6)
Vibrational Entropy
There are different kinds of entropy. Vibrational entropy describes the number of ways that a structure can flex or vibrate without breaking. (Unit: 9)
Virus Self-Assembly
In some viruses the capsid appears to be completely self-assembled. Understanding capsid self-assembly could present new ways to fight disease. (Unit: 9)
Unpinned vortices can move, forming a regular pattern in the STM images. Pinned vortices are scattered irregularly throughout the image. (Unit: 6)
WIMP Interaction with Xenon
When a WIMP interacts with the xenon, it not only causes an initial burst of light, but it also ionizes the xenon atoms. (Unit: 10)