Physics for the 21st Century logo

Visuals

Animations

The Higgs mechanism is analogous to a pond freezing over.
Analogy for the Higgs Mechanism
The Higgs mechanism is analogous to a pond freezing over.
The movie shows an electron (e<sup>-</sup>) and its anti-particle, the positron (e<sup>+</sup>), colliding at high energies and
Annihilation and Creation of Particles
When an electron and its antiparticle collide, they annihilate and new particles are created.
Animation of ATLAS, a particle physics experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN
ATLAS Components
The Electromagnetic Calorimeter, the Hadronic Calorimeter and the Muon Spectrometer, send different data to the trigger.
ATLAS, the largest of the LHC's six detectors, weighs around 7,000 tons, is over five stories tall, and is 100 meters underg
ATLAS Detector
ATLAS, the largest of the LHC's six detectors, weighs around 7,000 tons, is over five stories tall, and is 100 meters underground.
This movie shows the simplest way two electrons can scatter.
Electron-Electron Scattering
This movie shows the simplest way two electrons can scatter.
Animation describing the gaps in the Standard Model
Gaps in the Standard Model
Perhaps the existence of particles or interactions still to be discovered could help explain gaps in the Standard Model.
Animation of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).
Large Hadron Collider
The LHC is the largest and most complicated scientific machine ever created, generating data to advance our knowledge of the fundamental forces.
Animation of luminosity at the LHC
Luminosity
The LHC will operate with unprecedented luminosity—the measure used to express the number of collisions of protons per second.
Nambu-Goldstone boson
Nambu-Goldstone boson
A wave in field space corresponds to a physical particle.
Animation of a proton collision
Proton Collisions
When two protons collide, any particle with a mass smaller than the collision energy can be created.
As two bound quarks are pulled apart, new quarks pop out of the vacuum.
Quarks From the Vacuum
As two bound quarks are pulled apart, new quarks pop out of the vacuum.
Scattering Particles
Scattering Particles
A combination particle that's a mixture of type A and type B can be turned into a pure type A or pure type B particle when it interacts with matter.
Animation of the Standard model of particle physics
Standard Model
The Standard Model, the best theory we have to describe the elementary particles and interactions, does not accommodate gravity.
Animation illustrating top quarks and leptons
Top Quarks and Leptons
Top quarks decay into lighter particles, which decay into lighter particles. Physicists must trace back through the decay chain.
Animation of the trigger and the ATLAS detectors
Trigger and ATLAS Detectors
The trigger filters 40 million events down to 200 every second, using a three step process involving different ATLAS detectors.

Photographs

On the left, an example of non-conservative forces (a car braking on a race track). On the left, an example of conservative forc
Conservative and Non-conservative Forces
An example of conservative (right) and non-conservative (left) forces.
Michael Faraday (left) and James Clerk Maxwell (right) unified electricity and magnetism in classical field theory.
Faraday and Maxwell
Michael Faraday (left) and James Clerk Maxwell (right) unified electricity and magnetism in classical field theory.
Richard Feynman
Feynman, Richard
Richard Feynman was a major contributor to field of physics.
Ripples in lake from a rock
Ripples in Lake
Ripples in lake from a rock.
This photograph shows the almost full water tank at the Super-Kamiokande nucleon decay experiment.
Super-Kamiokande Experiment
The nearly full water tank of the Super-Kamiokande experiment, which searches for nucleon decay.
Chen-Ning Yang and Robert Mills
Yang and Mills
Chen-Ning Yang and Robert Mills created a mathematical construct that lay the groundwork for future efforts to unify the forces of nature.

top of page

Graphics

An example of beta decay.
Beta Decay
An example of beta decay.
Compactification: An extra dimension can curl up in a manner that is nearly impossible to discern for an inhabitant of the large
Compactification
An extra dimension can curl up in a manner that is nearly impossible to discern for an inhabitant of the larger, uncurled dimensions.
This Feynman diagram representing a composite Higgs and top quark is a part of the Higgs mass calculation in a supersymmetric mo
Composite Higgs
This Feynman diagram representing a composite Higgs and top quark is a part of the Higgs mass calculation in a supersymmetric model.
Arthur Holly Compton discovered that the frequency of light can change as it scatters off of matter.
Compton Scattering
Arthur Holly Compton (left) discovered that the frequency of light can change as it scatters off of matter.
In the interaction shown here, the net electromagnetic charge of the system is -2 throughout the interaction.
Conserved Charge
The total amount of electric charge is conserved, even in complicated interactions like this one.
This chart shows the known fundamental particles—those of matter and those of force.
Elementary Particles
This chart shows the known fundamental particles—those of matter and those of force.
In this Feynman diagram of a jet, a single quark decays into a shower of quarks and gluons.
Feynman Diagram of a Jet
In this Feynman diagram of a jet, a single quark decays into a shower of quarks and gluons.
Feynman diagram representing a simple scattering of two particles (left) and a more complicated scattering process involving two
Feynman diagrams
Feynman diagram representing a simple scattering of two particles (left) and a more complicated scattering process involving two particles (right).
Left: picture of tire on a road. Right: a microscopic view of friction showing molecules.
Friction, Close Up
A microscopic view of friction.
Schematic of a laser interferometer that can detect gravitational waves.
Gravitational Wave Detector
Schematic of a laser interferometer that can detect gravitational waves.
The electron on the left has an effective rotation that is counter-clockwise when looked at along the direction of motion (i.e.,
Mirror Symmetry
For the weak force, an electron's mirror image is a different type of object.
Examples of neutral objects.
Neutralized Charges
Neutralized charges in QED and QCD.
schematic image of neutron decay
Neutron Decay
Neutron decay from the inside.
When light shines on a metal, electrons pop out.
Photoelectric Effect
When light shines on a metal, electrons pop out.
Proton Decay
Proton Decay
The X boson mediates the decay of the proton.
A plot of QCD at Different Energies
QCD at Different Energies
The QCD coupling depends on energy.
QED at high energies and short distances.
QED Coupling
QED at high energies and short distances.
graphical image of scientist doing experiment at rest or on top of rocket at high speed
Reference Frames
Experimental results remain the same whether they are performed at rest or at a constant velocity.
Rotations in physical space and "particle space."
Rotation
Rotations in physical space and "particle space."
Two examples of a scattering cross section
Scattering Cross Sections
Two examples of a scattering cross section.
Simulation of a Higgs event at the LHC.
Simulated Higgs Event
Simulation of a Higgs event at the LHC.
Five Feynman diagrams: top 3 represent part of calculation of quantum effects on the Higgs mass, other 2 include superpartners o
Supersymmetry
Canceling loops in supersymmetry.
Energies, sizes, and temperatures in physics, and in nature.
Temperatures, Energies, and Lengths
Energies, sizes, and temperatures in physics, and in nature.
A left-handed electron is seen from a stopped train (left). If the train starts moving faster than the electron, it will appear
Train
Spin flipping on the train.
Unification of Quarks and Leptons
Unification of Quarks and Leptons
Quarks and leptons, unified.
In the Standard Model (left), the couplings for the strong, weak and electromagnetic forces never meet, while in supersymmetry (
Unifying the Forces
In the Standard Model (left), the couplings for the strong, weak and electromagnetic forces never meet, while in supersymmetry (right), these forces unify near 1015 GeV.
The three Feynman diagrams above represent parts of the calculation of the probability of two W particles scattering.
W Boson Scattering
Scattering of W particles in Feynman diagrams.
Image of water at macroscopic, molecular, atomic levels
Water
The electromagnetic force and the constituents of matter.
Wine Bottle Potential
Wine Bottle Potential
The wine-bottle potential that is characteristic of spontaneous symmetry breaking.
In the picture, there is a three-dimensional space where the gravitational force lives (along with gravitons) and a two-dimensio
World as a Membrane
The Standard Model particles could be confined to the surface of a membrane, while gravity is free to leak into other dimensions.
a display of tracks of particles emanating from a Z particle produced at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLAC).
Z Boson
The Z particle at SLAC.