Physics for the 21st Century logo



Dark Matter Annihilation
Dark matter particles could be their own antimatter partners. Therefore, annihilation could occur if two dark matter particles collide.
Haslam Map and WMAP
The Haslam Map measures synchrotron radiation at a radio frequency.
Lux Detector
Rick Gaitskell of Brown University is one member of a team of scientists and researchers attempting to strike particle physics gold.
Lux Detector PMTs
The nucleus recoils and emits scintillation light which we detect using photosensitive detectors at the boundaries of the container.
Lux Detector Water Shield
This multilayered strategy of putting the detector below ground and immersing it in water allows for an extremely low background event rate in their detector.
Particle Annihilation
Annihilation is what happens when a particle meets its antimatter partner.
Synchrotron Radiation
Synchrotron Radiation is generated as charged particles, that are moving near the speed of light, spiral around the lines of a magnetic field.
WIMP Interaction with Xenon
When a WIMP interacts with the xenon, it not only causes an initial burst of light, but it also ionizes the xenon atoms.


Axion Dark Matter Experiment—the apparatus
Axion Dark Matter Experiment
If dark matter consists of axions, the ADMX experiment might detect them within a decade.
Bullet Cluster
Contrasting x-ray and light images of the Bullet Cluster reveal strong evidence for the existence of dark matter.
The Coma Cluster
Coma Cluster
The Coma cluster which provided the first evidence that dark matter exists.
A technician works on detectors for the DAMA/LIBRA project, which stimulated the theory of dark forces.
Dark Matter Simulation
The distribution of dark matter in the universe.
Fermilab's Search for Axions
Axion hunters: two Fermilab physicists with their experiment designed to detect axions.
A Galactic Cluster
Galaxy Cluster
Clusters of galaxies contain significantly more dark matter than visible matter.
MACHO Project
This Australian telescope unsuccessfully sought evidence for the existence of MACHOs based on their putative effect on starlight.
James Peebles and Jeremiah Ostriker
Peebles and Ostriker
James Peebles (left) and Jeremiah Ostriker (right) found evidence for dark matter in their computer simulations.
Rubin, Vera
In the 1970s Vera Cooper Rubin and Kent Ford made observations of galaxies that led them to infer that the galaxies must contain dark matter.
Zwicky, Fritz
Fritz Zwicky suggested the existence of dark matter, and also predicted the transition of ordinary stars into neutron stars and that galaxies could act as gravitational lenses.

top of page


The 2dF Redshift Galaxy Survey
2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey
Galactic studies such as the "2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey" will improve our understanding of the distribution of dark and normal matter.
Constituents of the Universe
Constituents of the Universe
The composition of the universe, with 96 percent invisible and unfamiliar.
Cosmic Microwave Background
Cosmic Microwave Background
Map of the temperature variations in the cosmic microwave background measured by the WMAP satellite.
Creation of the Earliest Elements
Creation of the Earliest Elements
This series of reactions created the lightest elements in the infant universe.
Detecting the Direction of the WIMP Wind
If they exist, WIMPs could stream toward Earth in a specific direction in a "WIMP wind" that might be experimentally detectable.
Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope
Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope
NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has spotted an excess of normal matter particles that may have arisen when WIMPs annihilated each other.
Observed and predicted rotation curves for the galaxy M33, also known as the Triangulum galaxy.
Galactic Case for Dark Matter
Observed and predicted rotation curves for the galaxy M33, also known as the "Triangulum Galaxy."
LUX Detector
The Large Underground Xenon detector will have 100 times more sensitivity to WIMPs than previous detection methods.
Quasars and Gravitational Lenses
Gravitational lensing produces more than one image of distant quasars, as seen in this shot from the Hubble Space Telescope.
SQUID Amplifiers in the ADMX Detector
SQUID Amplifiers in the ADMX Detector
SQUID technology boosts the ability of the Axion Dark Matter experiment to detect the faint signals that would indicate the presence of axions.
Timeline of the Universe
The history of the universe according to our standard model of cosmology.