Neuroscience and the Classroom: Making Connections
Unit 6: Implications for Schools
- Coalition of Essential Schools (CES)
- An organization focused on educational reform and practice following the perspective of Theodore (Ted) Sizer as expressed in his books, including Horace's Compromise.
- A theory and perspective that describes how an individual learns as a function of building (constructing) knowledge from existing ideas and new information. Salient themes include an active role of the learner; learners do not come to tasks as clean slates; and context plays an important role. Major early contributors included Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky.
- Csíkszentimihályi's theory of optimal experience
- Mihály Csíkszentmihályi's theory of optimal experience describes the concept of "flow" as an optimal state of experience in which attention, effort, and motivation are focused on a task such that the individual is engaged and at a steady state of comfort between being challenged and threatened.
- Dewey, John
- Prominent figure in education, psychology, and philosophy in the 20th century with prominent achievements in advancing child-centered and progressive education, highlighting the interconnectedness of society and education, and advocating pragmatism, among many other contributions.
- differentiated instruction
- Approach to (or philosophy of) teaching that allows for individual students' learning needs and interest to dictate the educational direction to allow for different learner profiles to be successful in a classroom.
- Dweck's theory of intelligence
- Carol Dweck advanced a theory of intelligence with two broad categorizations of how people perceive intelligence explicitly or implicitly. Incremental theorists subscribe to a concept of intelligence that is dynamic, changeable, and responsive to efforts toward improvement. Entity theorists attribute intelligence to a fixed property of the person that is static.
- Forbes, Esther
- Esther Forbes was an American novelist, historian, and children's writer. She received the Pulitzer Prize in History for her 1942 biography, Paul Revere and the World He Lived In; and the 1944 Newbery Medal for her novel, Johnny Tremaine.
- A term describing personal knowledge about one's thinking processes, often in relation to learning. Metacognitive strategies target ways to self-scaffold and improve learning purposefully.
- Ryan and Deci's self-determination theory (SDT)
- Edward Deci and Richard Ryan put forth SDT as a theory of motivation and personality that highlights the role of intrinsic beliefs, abilities, knowledge, and desires of individuals in the context of environmental influences.