Key Learning Targets
- Realize that attempts to change the status quo are difficult and often encounter resistance.
- Be able to explain civil disobedience and give historical examples of it.
- Be able to explain how the events known as “Little Rock 9” and “Boston School Desegregation” are two examples of violent resistance against court-mandated school integration.
- Be able to discuss how the Chicano School “Blowouts” in East Los Angeles were different from—but related to—events surrounding school integration in Little Rock and Boston.
- When shown examples of a letter, a speech, a statement of purpose, and a proclamation, be able to explain how each is effective or ineffective.
- Be able to suggest reasons why school integration caused violent reactions in the South and North, and be able to support their reasons with evidence.
- Compare and contrast the African American struggle for equality in Little Rock and Boston, the Chicano American movement for equal treatment in public schools in Los Angeles, the second-wave feminists’ quest for equal opportunity for women, and the Native Americans’ call to attention of their history and their present plight.
- Be able to identify components of an effective argument by noting claims, warrants, and use of evidence in Martin Luther King, Jr.’s Letter from Birmingham Jail, Malcolm X’s The Ballot or the Bullet speech, the National Organization for Women’s Statement of Purpose, and the Alcatraz Red Power Movement’s Alcatraz Proclamation.