You may have noticed that your estimates for the total penguin population vary quite a bit based on both the sample size and which sub-regions were sampled. The decision about how to select a sample, accordingly, is a critical one in statistics. It is important that each part of the population be treated fairly. If you are fair in the selection, then you should obtain a representative sample and thus a more fair estimation procedure.
In earlier sessions, you looked at notions of fairness and randomness and noticed that people have a difficult time being fair or random. So what methods can you use to accomplish fair sampling? Note 4