Working with a spatial representation of a population offers several advantages for the introduction of sampling ideas. You can picture the population, and, more importantly, you can view samples in relation to the population.
You are asked to think about how you might use the information in a sample to estimate the total number of penguins in the entire region. Some textbook presentations of sampling and estimation skip this question; the text gives the definition of the estimator and proceeds from there. It is important to understand that the estimator is a human invention, and that you can choose your own method for estimating a total number based on a sample.
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