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Unit 6: Risk, Exposure, and Health // Visuals

Animation(s)

Children exposed to pesticides
Children exposed to pesticides
Babies with the highest levels of the insecticide chlorpyfiros had significantly lower weight and length at birth and significantly poorer mental and motor development at age three. View animation

Flow rate
Flow rate
Ongoing research will explore the importance of mine seepage and chat pile run-off as sources of metal into Tar Creek. View animation

Lead poisoning
Lead poisoning
Lead inhibits the action of calcium, which plays an important role in the conduction of nerve impulses vital to normal brain function. View animation

Water contamination from mines
Water contamination from mines
Hundreds of miles of abandoned mines are filled with contaminated water bubbling up to the surface. View animation

Photograph(s)

Backpack designed to measure exposure to indoor air pollutants
Backpack designed to measure exposure to indoor air pollutants
This backpack monitoring system, designed for studying exposure to air pollution, includes several pollutant detectors, a sampling pump, and a handheld Global Positioning System receiver. View image

Commercial king crab fisherman, Alaska
Commercial king crab fisherman, Alaska
Commercial fishing is one of the most dangerous occupations in the United States, but fishermen can make tens of thousands of dollars for one to three months' work. These rates represent a risk premium that is required to attract workers. View image

Four generations from one family participating in the Framingham Heart Study and associate studies
Four generations from one family participating in the Framingham Heart Study and associate studies
The Framingham Heart Study was designed to identify general causes of heart disease and stroke. Researchers have published more than 1,000 scientific papers on risk factors for cardiovascular disease based on Framingham data. View image

Sigmoid dose-response curve
Sigmoid dose-response curve
All substances can produce responses that are beneficial, toxic, or lethal to an organism or population, depending on the dose. View image

Warning sign, Palos Verdes Peninsula, California
Warning sign, Palos Verdes Peninsula, California
Chemical plants near the Palos Verdes Peninsula south of Los Angeles discharged contaminated sewage until the early 1970s. State agencies closed the local fishery for white croaker in 1990 due to health risks from eating fish contaminated with PCBs and pesticides. View image

Graphic(s)

Change in asthma symptoms among children participating in HPHI before and after intervention
Change in asthma symptoms among children participating in HPHI before and after intervention
Controlling exposure to environmental triggers produced significant decreases in respiratory symptoms among children with asthma in three Boston public housing developments. View image

Conceptual PBPK model for hexachlorobenzene exposure
Conceptual PBPK model for hexachlorobenzene exposure
PBPK modeling integrates the physiology and anatomy of the human body with the biochemistry of specific contaminants. View image

Exposure pathways for radioactive chemicals and materials from a nuclear waste storage facility
Exposure pathways for radioactive chemicals and materials from a nuclear waste storage facility
Humans can be exposed to environmental pollutants by many routes, so researchers need to know how contaminants move through various media such as air, water, and soil. View image

Inner city ER admissions for pediatric asthmatics
Inner city ER admissions for pediatric asthmatics
Children living in poor sections of inner cities are 5 times more likely to be hospitalized for asthma than children living in wealthier sections. View image

Label indicating that a product complies with the EU’s Restrictions on Hazardous Substances (RoHS) directive
Label indicating that a product complies with the EU’s Restrictions on Hazardous Substances (RoHS) directive
The Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive was adopted to reduce generation of toxic waste from discarded electrical and electronic equipment. View image

Relationship between judged frequency and actual number of deaths per year
Relationship between judged frequency and actual number of deaths per year
Many people overestimate risks from high visible and sensational threats like tornadoes and underestimate risks from common illnesses such as cancer and heart disease. View image

Risk management model
Risk management model
Judging risks in terms of both their probability and their likely consequences can make risk management more systematic and can help regulators focus time and resources on the most urgent risks. View image

Snow's original map (shows cases of cholera around water pumps)
Snow's original map (shows cases of cholera around water pumps)
Mapping has become a standard technique in epidemiology, using statistical methods to account for variations in population density. View image

Techniques for reducing home radon gas levels
Techniques for reducing home radon gas levels
Radon exposure, which kills thousands of Americans annually, can be prevented by testing homes and making repairs where radon is detected. View image

The risk assessment/risk management paradigm
The risk assessment/risk management paradigm
Assessing and managing risks are two distinct steps, each of which involves multiple decisions. View image

X-ray fluorescence intensity from Pb in hair
X-ray fluorescence intensity from Pb in hair
Composer Ludwig von Beethoven suffered from lifelong symptoms that included abdominal pain, irritability, and depression. Lead poisoning could account for these symptoms, and may have contributed to his early death at 57. View image

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