Footnotes for Unit 9 - Biodiversity Decline

  1. E.O. Wilson, ed., Biodiversity (Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, 1988).
  2. Rodolfo Dirzo and Peter H. Raven, "Global State of Biodiversity and Loss," Annual Review of Environment and Resources, vol. 28 (2003), pp. 154–160.
  3. David R. Foster and John D. Aber. eds., Forests in Time: The Environmental Consequences of 1,000 Years of Change in New England (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004), pp. 59–61.
  4. For examples, see Field Museum, "Meet the Scientist,"
  5. Dirzo and Raven, pp. 140–41.
  6. Natalie Angier, "Animals and Fungi: Evolutionary Tie?" New York Times, April 16, 1993, p. A18.
  7. J. Alan Clark and Robert A. May, "Taxonomic Bias in Conservation Research," Science, July 12, 2002, pp. 191–192.
  8. Dirzo and Rave, "Global State of Biodiversity and Loss," pp. 141–42.
  9. Census of Marine Life, "Ocean Microbe Census Discovers Diverse World of Rare Bacteria," July 31, 2006,
  10. Noah Fierer and Robert B. Jackson, "The Diversity and Biogeography of Soil Bacterial Communities," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 103 (2006), pp. 626–31.
  11. Norman Myers et al., "Biodiversity Hotspots for Conservation Priorities," Nature, vol. 403, February 24, 2000, p. 853.
  12. For an interactive map with detailed descriptions of all 34 global hotspots, see Conservation International,
  13. Conservation International, "Protected Area Coverage in the Hotspots,"
  14. Ana S. L. Rodrigues et al., "Effectiveness of the Global Protected Area Network in Representing Species Diversity," Nature, vol. 428, April 8, 2004, p. 642.
  15. Andrew Balmford, Rhys E. Green, and Martin Jenkins, "Measuring the Changing State of Nature," TRENDS in Ecology and Evolution, vol. 18, no. 7, July 2003, p. 327.
  16. Dirzo and Raven, p. 164.
  17. Douglas J. Levey et al., "Effects of Landscape Corridors on Seed Dispersal by Birds," Science, vol. 309, July 1, 2005, pp. 146–48; Cornelia Dean, "Home on the Range: A Corridor for Wildlife," New York Times, May 23, 2006, p. F1.
  18. "The Unwanted Amphibian," Frog Decline Reversal Project, Inc.,
  19. David S. Wilcove et al., "Quantifying Threats to Imperiled Species in the United States," Bioscience, vol. 48, no. 8, August 1, 1998.
  20. Food and Agriculture Organization, The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2004,, p. 32.
  21. C.M. Rick Tomato Genetics Research Center,
  22. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, "New York City Watershed Partnership," June 2006,
  23. Andrew Balmford et al., "Economic Reasons for Conserving Wild Nature," Science, August 9, 2002.
  24. Dirzo and Raven, pp. 137–67.
  25. For details, see "The Great Backyward Bird Count,"; National Wildlife Federation, "Frogwatch USA,"; and Reef Environmental Education Foundation,
  26. Filling the Gaps: Priority Data Needs and Key Management Challenges for National Reporting on Ecosystem Condition (Washington, DC: H. John Heinz Center, May 2006), p. 3.
  27. "Central Park Survey Finds New Centipede," American Museum of Natural History, January 29, 2003; "Graduate Student Discovers an Unusual New Species," Oceanus, February 10, 2006.
  28. Michel Loreau et al., "Diversity Without Representation," Nature, July 20, 2006, pp. 245–46.

top of page

close window