Footnotes for Unit 6 - Risk, Exposure, and Health

  1. Waltraud Eder, Markus J. Ege, and Erika von Mutius, "The Asthma Epidemic," New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 355 (2006), pp. 2226–2235.
  2. Jonathan I. Levy et al., "A Community-Based Participatory Research Study of Multifaceted In-Home Environmental Interventions for Pediatric Asthmatics in Public Housing," Social Science & Medicine, vol. 63 (2006), pp. 2191–2203.
  3. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, "New Chemicals and Existing Chemicals,"
  4. Society for Risk Analysis, "Principles for Risk Analysis," RISK newsletter, Third Quarter 2001.
  5. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, William K. Reilly oral history interview,
  6. National Research Council, Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: Managing the Process (National Academy Press, 1983).
  7. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Guidelines for Exposure Assessment, FRL-4129-5, 1992, pp. 16–17,
  8. EPA, Guidelines for Exposure Assessment, FRL-4129-5, 1992, p. 126,
  9. University of California, Los Angeles, Department of Epidemiology, "Broad Street Pump Outbreak,"
  10. Austin Bradford Hill, "The Environment and Disease: Association or Causation?" Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, vol. 58 (1965), pp. 295–300,
  11. National Institutes of Health, Cancer and the Environment, NIH Publication No. 03-2039 (Washington, DC, August 2003), p. 1.
  12. NIH, Cancer and the Environment, pp. 7–8.
  13. Nancy Nelson, "The Majority of Cancers Are Linked to the Environment," BenchMarks, National Cancer Institute, June 17, 2004,; Mayo Clinic, "Carcinogens In the Environment: A Major Cause of Cancer?" May 24, 2006.
  14. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 2, "EPA Risk Assessments Confirm Exposure to PCBs in River May Increase Cancer Risk, Other Non-Cancer Health Hazards and Threaten Fish and Wildlife," press release, August 4, 1999.
  15. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Technology Transfer Network, Air Toxics Website, "Risk Assessment for Carcinogens,"
  16. Pamela R.D. Williams and Dennis J. Paustenbach, "Risk Characterization," in Dennis J. Paustenbach, ed., Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: Theory and Practice (New York: Wiley, 2002), p. 325.
  19. John D. Graham, Director, Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget, "Valuing Health: An OMB Perspective," remarks, February 13, 2003,
  20. W. Kip Viscusi and Joseph E. Aldy, "The Value of a Statistical Life: A Critical Review of Market Estimates throughout the World," Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Vol. 27, No. 1 (2003), pp. 5–76.

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