Footnotes for Unit 5 - Human Population Dynamics

  1. J.P. Holdren and P.R. Ehrlich, "Human Population and the Global Environment," American Scientist, vol. 62 (1974), pp. 282–92.
  2. Joel E. Cohen, How Many People Can the Earth Support? (New York: Norton, 1995), pp. 212-36, 261–62.
  3. Dudley Kirk, "Demographic Transition Theory," Population Studies, Vol. 50, No. 3 (November 1996), pp. 381–87.
  4. In popular usage, "fertility" means what demographers call "fecundity." This chapter uses "fertility" as demographers do.
  5. Joseph A. McFalls, Jr., "Population: A Lively Introduction," Population Bulletin, December 2003, p. 5.
  6. Population Reference Bureau, 2006 World Population Data Sheet,, pp. 5, 9.
  7. Ibid., pp. 5–10.
  8. Joel E. Cohen, "Human Population Grows Up," Scientific American, September 2005, pp. 48–55.
  9. A technical note: 2.1 is the long-run replacement level when the baby-boom generation has aged and the overall age structure has stabilized. Before then, a population can continue to grow with the total fertility rate at or below 2.1, depending on its age structure, a manifestation of the concept of population momentum described earlier.
  10. David E. Bloom and David Canning, "Booms, Busts, and Echoes," Finance & Development, September 2006, p. 13.
  11. Paul Harrison and Fred Pearce, AAAS Atlas of Population and Environment (Berkeley: American Association for the Advancement of Science and University of California Press, 2000), p. 7.
  12. John C. Caldwell, James F. Phillips, and Barkat-e-Khuda, "The Future of Family Planning Programs," Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 33, No. 1, March 2002, p. 2.
  13. Lant Pritchett, "Desired Fertility and the Impact of Population Policies," Population and Development Review, Vol. 1, No. 20, March 1994, pp. 1–55.
  14. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, World Population Prospects: The 2006 Revision, Population Database,
  15. Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, "China Now No. 1 in CO 2 Emissions; USA In Second Position," press release, June 19, 2007.
  16. United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT), State of the World's Cities 2006/7 (London: Earthscan, 2006), p. viii.
  17. Ibid., p. 5.
  18. UN-HABITAT, State of the World's Cities 2006/7, p. 5.
  19. United Nations Statistics Division,
  20. Nancy Birdsall and Steven W. Sinding, "How and Why Population Matters: New Findings, New Issues," in Nancy Birdsall, Allen C. Kelley, and Steven W. Sinding, eds., Population Matters (Oxford University Press, 2003), p. 14.
  21. "Banking the 'Demographic Dividend,'" Rand Policy Brief, RB-5065-WFHF-DLPF-RF (2002); David E. Bloom and Jeffrey Williamson, "Demographic Transitions and Economic Miracles in Emerging Asia," World Bank Economic Review, Vol. 12, No. 3 (1998), pp. 419–55.
  22. Ronald D. Lee and Andrew Mason, "What is the Demographic Dividend?" Finance & Development, September 2006, pp. 16–17.
  23. Jeffrey D. Sachs, "Can Extreme Poverty Be Eliminated?" Scientific American, September 2005, pp. 56–65.
  24. William Easterly, The White Man's Burden: Why the West's Efforts To Aid the Rest Have Done So Much Ill and So Little Good (New York: Penguin, 2006), p. 7.
  25. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Tobacco-Related Mortality," fact sheet, September 2006.

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