Footnotes for Unit 4 - Ecosystems

  1. One important exception is microbes, which are more diverse in temperate areas; see Unit 9, "Biodiversity Decline," for details.
  2. Cornelia Dean, "In An Antarctic Desert, Signs of Life," New York Times, February 3, 1998, p. F1.
  3. U.S. Geological Survey, "Mineral Substances in the Environment," http://geology.er.usgs.gov/eastern/environment/environ.html.
  4. Benjamin S. Halpern, Karl Cottenie, and Bernardo R. Broitman, "Strong Top-Down Control in Southern California Kelp Forest Ecosystems," Science, May 26, 2006, pp. 1230–32.
  5. G.E. Hutchinson, "Concluding Remarks," Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 22 (1957), pp. 415–27.
  6. G.F. Gause, The Struggle for Existence (Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1934).
  7. Matthew E. Gompper, The Ecology of Northeast Coyotes, Working Paper No. 17 (New York, NY: Wildlife Conservation Society, July 2002), http://www.wcs.org/media/file/Ecology_of_NE_Coyotes.pdf.
  8. S.D. Fretwell and H.J. Lucas, "Ideal Free Distribution," Acta Biotheory 19 (1970), pp. 16–21.
  9. Matthew E. Gompper, The Ecology of Northeast Coyotes, Working Paper No. 17 (New York, NY: Wildlife Conservation Society, July 2002), http://www.wcs.org/media/file/Ecology_of_NE_Coyotes.pdf, pp. 17–20.
  10. For more information, see http://www.nps.gov/tapr/index.htm

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