Footnotes for Unit 12 - Earth's Changing Climate

  1. Water vapor contributes to climate change through an important positive feedback loop: as the atmosphere warms, evaporation from Earth's surface increases and the atmosphere becomes able to hold more water vapor, which in turn traps more thermal energy and warms the atmosphere further. It also can cause a negative feedback when water in the atmosphere condenses into clouds that reflect solar radiation back into space, reducing the total amount of energy that reaches Earth. For more details, see National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, "Greenhouse Gases: Frequently Asked Questions,"
  2. Key GHG Data: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Data for 1990–2003 Submitted To the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Bonn: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, November 2005), pp. 16, 28.
  3. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, "The U.S. Inventory of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: Fast Facts," April 2006,
  4. John A. Higgins and Daniel P. Schrag, "Beyond Methane: Towards a Theory for the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum," Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 245 (2006), pp. 523–537.
  5. National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, Paleoclimatology Branch, "Astronomical Theory of Climate Change,"; Spencer R. Weart, The Discovery of Global Warming (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2003), pp. 74–77.
  6. "Abrupt Climate Change," Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University,
  7. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate Change 2007: The Scientific Basis, Summary for Policymakers (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2007), pp. 4–6.
  8. Ibid., pp. 2–3.
  9. Ibid., p. 8.
  10. U.S. Geological Survey, "Impacts of Volcanic Gases on Climate, The Environment, and People," May 1997,
  11. IPCC, Climate Change 2001: Synthesis Reports, Summary for Policymakers (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2001), p. 6.
  12. ACIA, Impacts of a Warming Arctic: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004), p. 12.
  13. J.E. Weddell, ed., The State of Coral Reef Ecosystems of the United States and Pacific Freely Associated States, 2005, NOAA Technical memorandum NOS NCCOS 11 (Silver Spring, MD: NOAA/NCCOS Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment's Biogeography Team, 2005), pp. 13–15,
  14. David R. Foster and John D. Aber, eds., Forests in Time: The Environmental Consequences of 1,000 Years of Change in New England (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004), pp. 45–46.
  15. Camille Parmesan and Hector Galbraith, Observed Impacts of Global Climate Change in the U.S. (Arlington, VA: Pew Center on Global Climate Change, 2004),
  16. IPCC, Climate Change 2007: The Scientific Basis, p. 749.
  17. United Nations Environment Programme, "Observed Climate Trends,"
  18. Kerry Emanuel, "Increasing Destructiveness of Tropical Cyclones Over the Past 30 Years," Nature, vol. 436, August 4, 2005, pp. 686–88, and "Anthropogenic Effects on Tropical Cyclone Activity,"
  19. National Research Council, Abrupt Climate Change: Inevitable Surprises (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2002).

top of page

close window