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Unit 8: When Chemicals Meet Water—The Properties of Solutions

Glossary

Boiling point
The temperature at which a liquid begins to boil, i.e., its phase changes from liquid to gas. At this temperature, the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the pressure of the atmosphere.
Boiling point elevation
The increase in boiling point of a solution due to an increased concentration of dissolved solute.
Chromatography
A technique for separating different types of molecules from a solution. The solution, called the "mobile phase," is passed over a material called the "stationary phase"; the different solute molecules have different affinities for the stationary phase and move through it at different rates, allowing for their separation.
Colligative properties
Properties of solutions that vary with the concentration of dissolved solute particles, but are indifferent to the particular chemical identity of the solute.
Colloid
A mixture in which very small particles of one substance are distributed evenly throughout another substance.
Concentration
The amount of solute in a given amount of solution.
Dilute
To make a solution less concentrated by adding more solvent.
Dissolution
The process of creating a homogeneous solution of solute molecules in a solvent.
End point
The point in a titration where the reaction ceases to occur. It indicates that all of the reactant in the flask is used up.
Extraction
The removal of a solute, or solutes, from a solution, for example: filtration.
Filtration
The process of passing a liquid through a filter. The filter allows the passage of solvent and dissolved solute molecules, but blocks the passage of undissolved large particles.
Freezing point depression
The decrease in freezing point of a solution due to an increased concentration of dissolved solute.
Heterogeneous
Describing a mixture consisting of ingredients with various physical and chemical properties, like a pepperoni pizza.
Homogenous
Describing a mixture having the same physical and chemical properties throughout, like salt water.
Hypertonic
The property a solution is said to have when it contains a higher concentration of dissolved particles than another solution to which it is being compared. For example, the salt in seawater makes it hypertonic to the fresh water of a lake.
Hypotonic
The property a solution is said to have when it contains a lower concentration of dissolved particles than another solution to which it is being compared.
Indicator
A substance that undergoes a change, usually in color, that indicates the endpoint of a titration.
Isotonic
The property a solution is said to have when it contains the same concentration of dissolved particles as another solution to which it is being compared.
Mass percentage or (m/m) perce
The mass of the solute divided by the mass of solution multiplied by 100%.
Mobile phase
The substance in a chromatography experiment that carries the dissolved molecules of interest through the stationary phase.
Molality
The concentration of dissolved solute in a solution, expressed as the number of moles of solute per kilogram of mass of the solvent.
Molarity
The concentration of dissolved solute in a solution, expressed as the number of moles of solute per liter of the solution.
Mole fraction
The fraction of a mixture that is comprised of a particular molecule. It is expressed as the number of moles of the molecule of interest divided by the total number of moles of all the molecules in the mixture.
Osmotic pressure
The pressure required to prevent the flow of solvent across a semipermeable membrane due to different concentrations of dissolved particles on each side of the membrane.
Partial pressure
The part of the total pressure exerted by one of the gases in a mixture of gases. Each gas exerts the pressure it would exert if it were by itself in the same volume at the same temperature as the mixture; the total pressure is the sum of these partial pressures.
Precipitation
The formation of solid crystals by dissolved solute molecules coalescing out of solution. This process is the opposite of dissolution.
Raoult's Law
The partial pressure of a gas over a liquid mixture is equal to the vapor pressure of the pure substance multiplied by the mole fraction of that substance in the liquid mixture.
Saturated
An adjective used to describe a solution that has dissolved as much of a particular solute as it can at its current temperature.
Semipermeable membrane
A membrane that allows only certain types of molecules to pass through it.
Solubility
The extent to which a solute is able to dissolve in a solvent. Often the solubility is given as the specific quantity of solute it takes to saturate 100 mL of solvent. For example, the solubility of sugar in water is 67 grams per 100 mL.
Solutes
In a solution, the substances that are dissolved.
Solution
A mixture of substances in which one substance, the solute, distributes its molecules evenly throughout a second substance, the solvent.
Solvent
In a solution, the substance in which the solute is dissolved.
Stationary phase
The substance in a chromatography experiment that remains in place while the mobile phase carries the molecule of interest through it.
Titration
A technique for measuring the concentration of a solute in a solution by carefully measuring how much of a second molecule, called the "titrant," reacts with it. As titrant is added to the solution, the reaction takes place until the solute is used up; the amount of titrant required to reach this point (see End Point) can be used to deduce how much solute was in the solution.
Vapor pressure
The gas pressure, defined at a given temperature, due to the evaporation from the surface of a liquid phase.
Vapor pressure depression
The decrease in vapor pressure seen between the gas over a pure liquid substance and the gas over the same liquid containing dissolved solute particles.
Volume/volume or (v/v) percent
The volume of the solute divided by the volume of the solution multiplied by 100%.

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