Teacher resources and professional development across the curriculum

Teacher professional development and classroom resources across the curriculum

Monthly Update sign up
Mailing List signup
Rediscovering Biology Logo
Online TextbookCase StudiesExpertsArchiveGlossarySearch
Emerging Infectious Diseases
Back to Unit Page
Unit Content
Unit Textbook Chapter
Animations & Images
Expert Interview Transcripts
Unit Glossary
Related Resources
View Text Only List

Antigenic Shift Antigenic Shift
The influenza virus can mutate through antigenic shift, causing new outbreaks to occur in human populations.
View Quicktime Movie
Bacterial Conjugation Bacterial Conjugation
Antibiotic resistance genes can be shared between bacteria through a sex pilus.
View Quicktime Movie
Bacterial Transformation Bacterial Transformation
Antibiotic resistance genes can be obtained by the uptake of free-floating DNA released from a bacterial cell that has died.
View Quicktime Movie
Dispersal of Malaria and Chloroquine Resistance Dispersal of Malaria and Chloroquine Resistance
Comparison of the distribution of the malaria parasite and chloroquine resistance around the world. When the maps are overlaid, it is shown that there is chloroquine resistance nearly everywhere the malaria parasite exists.
View Animation Still
Efflux Pump Efflux Pump
An efflux pump is a mechanism used by bacteria to eject antibiotics before they can affect the cell.
View Quicktime Movie
Four Gene DNA Vaccine Four Gene DNA Vaccine
Creating a DNA vaccine for malaria will involve producing antigens from several stages of the parasite's life cycle.
View Quicktime Movie
Influenza Infection Influenza Infection
Description of how the influenza virus infects a cell and the role of hemagglutinin in the release of RNA from the viral core.
View Quicktime Movie
Malarial Infection Malarial Infection
Description of the malarial life cycle within the human body.
View Quicktime Movie


Antigenic shiftAntigenic shift
A new form of a virus can arise when multiple viruses infect the same animal cell. Segments of nucleic acid can be exchanged resulting in a novel pathogen.
Bacterial transformationBacterial transformation
1. Naked DNA fragments from disintegrated cells in the area of a potential recipient cell. this cell must be of the correct genus and be in a state of competence, allowing the entry of the DNA fragments. 2. Entry of naked DNA into competent cell. 3. Recombination.
Distribution of Aedes aegypti and dengue hemorrhagic feverDistribution of Aedes aegypti and dengue hemorrhagic fever
Distribution of the mosquito Aedes aegypti, the vector for dengue/dengue hemorrhagic fever. A mosquito eradication program administered by the Pan American Health Organization ended in 1970.
Group A StreptococciGroup A Streptococci
Electron micrograph of an ultra-thin section of a chain of Group A streptococci. The cell surface fibrils, consisting primarily of M protein, are clearly evident. The bacterial cell wall, to which the fibrils are attached, is also clearly seen as the light-staining region between the fibrils and the dark-staining cell interior. Incipient cell division is also indicated by the nascent septum formation (seen as an indentation of the cell wall) near the cell equator. The streptococcal cell diameter is equal to approximately one micron. (20,000x magnification)
Hemmagglutinin protein-pH 5Hemmagglutinin protein-pH 5
When the influenza virus enters a cell it is engulfed into an endosome. The pH inside the endosome lowers from 7 to 5, causing the hemmagglutinin protein to change shape, open the endosome membrane, and let the viral material into the cell.
Hemmagglutinin protein-pH 7Hemmagglutinin protein-pH 7
When the influenza virus attaches and enters a cell, the hemmagglutinin surface protein is at pH 7. A shape change caused by a lower pH is responsible for the hemmagglutinin to open the endosome and release viral material into the cell.
Influenza epidemic of 1918 Influenza epidemic of 1918
The life cycle of the malaria parasiteThe life cycle of the malaria parasite
Sporozoites are delivered to the human bloodstream from the salivary gland of the Anopheles mosquito when the insect bites. In the liver, the sporozoites multiply and become merozoites. The merozoites enter red blood cells and become trophozoites. Red blood cells rupture and new merozoites, which have developed from the trophozoites, are released. Gametocytes (the sexual stage) are eventually produced. Gametocytes taken up by the mosquito in a blood meal fuse to form zygotes, which give rise to sporozoites.
Transduction by bacteriophage Transduction by bacteriophage
Transposons facilitate the movement of genes throughout bacterial populations. These jumping genes can move from a chromosomal location to a plasmid. Conjugation allows the resultant plasmid to move readily within the bacterial population.
Vibrio choleraeVibrio cholerae
Scanning electron microscope image of Vibrio cholerae bacteria, which can infect the digestive system
  Home  |  Channel  |  Catalog  |  About Us  |  Search  |  Contact Us  
  © Annenberg Foundation 2013. All rights reserved. Privacy Policy