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Unit 6: HIV and AIDS
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Immune System Overview Immune System Overview
An overview of the specific immune system.
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HIV Infection HIV Infection
A description of HIV structure and how it infects T cells.
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HIV Receptors HIV Receptors
The two distinct co-receptors on the surface of T cells are CXCR4 and CCR5, both requiring CD4 for the entry of the HIV virus. CCR5 is the receptor used for entry in the asymptomatic phase; during the symptomatic phase the viruses can use the CXCR4 receptor.
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HIV DNA Vaccine HIV DNA Vaccine
A brief description of how DNA might be used as a vaccine for HIV.
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A cytotoxic T cell attacking a host cell that is expressing foreign antigensA cytotoxic T cell attacking a host cell that is expressing foreign antigens
Binding by both the antigen and an MHC molecule initiates the secretion of lytic enzymes by the cytotoxic T cell (Tc).
Budding HIV virusesBudding HIV viruses
HIV-1 by transmission electron micrograph, showing mature virus particles budding from a lymphocyte
Helper T cells regulate both humoral and cellular immunityHelper T cells regulate both humoral and cellular immunity
A specialized macrophage ingests foreign antigens and displays antigen fragments along with MHC (self) molecules on its surface. A helper T cell (TH) with the appropriate receptor binds and responds by producing cytokines that stimulate antigen specific B cells, as well as specific cytotoxic T cells.
HIV virusesHIV viruses
HIV-1 by transmission electron microscopy, showing the mature virus particles that have budded off the nearby lymphocyte
Stained HIV virusesStained HIV viruses
HIV-1 by transmission electron microscopy, stained with ruthenium red to show the surface glycoprotein knobs
The replication cycle of HIVThe replication cycle of HIV
1) Membranes of the virus and the host cell fuse, and viral RNA and reverse transcriptase enter the host's cytoplasm. 2) Reverse transcriptase allows viral RNA to be copied to DNA. 3) Viral DNA is incorporated into the host chromosome as provirus. 4) Transcription and translation of viral proteins: viral RNA becomes incorporated into viral particles and is transcribed as well. 5) Viral particles bud out of the host cell, acquiring an envelope in the process.
The structure of HIVThe structure of HIV
Shows the binding of HIV to a host cell. GP-120 on the virus binds CD4 receptors on the host. A second coreceptor molecule on the host is also required for binding.
Typical progression of HIV infection and AIDSTypical progression of HIV infection and AIDS
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