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Unit 3: Evolution and Phylogenetics
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Animations

Cladogram Cladogram
An example of a cladogram, which depicts the relatedness of taxonomic groups; uses the Order Cetacea, whales, as an example.
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New Theoretical Approach in Whale Phylogeny New Theoretical Approach in Whale Phylogeny
A phylogeny depicting the new picture of whale ancestry.
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Genetic Data Genetic Data
Demonstrates how scientists use genetic data to build a phylogeny and determine relatedness between a group of organisms.
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Tree of Life  Lateral Gene Transfer Diagram Tree of Life -- Lateral Gene Transfer Diagram
Revised "tree of life" with all groups divided into their domains. Includes information about lateral gene transfer and the endosymbiosis of bacteria that became mitochondria and chloroplasts.
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Images

Ambulocetus, an archaic whale Ambulocetus, an archaic whale
An artistic reconstruction of Ambulocetus, an ancestor to modern whales, based on fossil evidence
Anthrax phylogeny Anthrax phylogeny
A phylogenetic representation of the various anthrax isolates from laboratories around the world
Anthrax rods Anthrax rods
Scanning electron micrograph of Bacillus anthracis rods in the human spleen
Anthrax spores Anthrax spores
Spores of Bacillus anthracis
Artiodactyl Artiodactyl
An artist's rendering of an ancient artiodactyl, a group of split-hoofed animals that were the ancestors to camels, hippos pigs, and probably modern whales
Bacillus anthracis Bacillus anthracis
Transmission electron micrograph of Bacillus anthracis, the bacterium that causes anthrax
Bacillus anthracis Bacillus anthracis
Photomicrograph of Bacillus anthracis, the bacterium that causes anthrax
Carl Woese's data Carl Woese's data
An autoradiogram of a gel electrophoresis separation and visualization of ribosomal RNA, part of Carl Woese's research that led him to reorganize the Tree of Life into three domains rather than five kingdoms.
Chloroplasts Chloroplasts
A photomicrograph of chloroplasts, key cellular structures found in plants, which originally existed as free-living bacteria
Kingdoms vs. Domains
Five-kingdom vs. three-domain tree of life
Old "tree of life," based on five kingdoms, transformed into new tree built from three domains, based on rRNA evidence.
Genome of Bacillus anthracis Genome of Bacillus anthracis
A graphical representation of the DNA sequence of Bacillus anthracis
Gingerich's revised picture of whale evolution Gingerich's revised picture of whale evolution
In the revised picture of whale evolution, cetaceans evolved from the artiodactyls, and not the mesonychids, as previously thought. The closest living relative to whales is now thought to be the hippo.
Haeckel's evolutionary tree Haeckel's evolutionary tree
A tree-like representation by Ernst Haeckel, a nineteenth-century evolutionary biologist
Kutchicetus, an archaic whale Kutchicetus, an archaic whale
An artistic reconstruction of Kutchicetus, an ancestor to modern whales, based on fossil evidence
Megabat Megabat
Photograph of an example of a megabat, the African fruit bat.
Mexican freetail bat Mexican freetail bat
Photograph of an example of a microbat, the Mexican freetail bat.
Monophyletic, paraphyletic, and polyphyletic trees Monophyletic, paraphyletic, and polyphyletic trees
Examples of monophyletic (top), paraphyletic (middle), and polyphyletic (bottom) trees.
Monophyletic, paraphyletic, and polyphyletic trees Monophyly and diphyly of bat evolution
Alternative possibilities of bat phylogeny. Top: Bats form a monophyletic clade, in which flight evolved once in mamals. Alternately, bottom, bats are diphyletic, and flight evolved twice in mammals.
Pachyaena Pachyaena
An artist's rendering of Pachyaena, an example of the extinct group of animals called mesonychids. Once thought to be the ancestors of modern whales, it now appears that this is not the case.
Parsimony Parsimony
Three possible unrooted trees are shown. The top tree assumes nine changes in character state occurred (each change is represented by a mark), the middle tree assumes ten changes, and the bottom tree assumes eleven. Because the top tree assumes the fewest changes, it is the most parsimonious tree.
Phillip Gingerich Phillip Gingerich
Archaeologist Phillip Gingerich working in the field in 1991
Phillip Gingerich Phillip Gingerich
Archaeologist Phillip Gingerich working in the field in 1991
Phylogeny of Bacillus anthracis Phylogeny of Bacillus anthracis
A phylogenetic representation of Bacillus anthracis and related bacteria
Plasmid DNA Plasmid DNA
A photomicrograph of plasmid DNA, a small circular form of DNA found in bacteria
Unrooted tree and possible rooting points Unrooted tree and possible rooting points
Panel A shows an unrooted tree. Panels B, C, D, and E should be the resulting rooted trees, when root is placed in each of the corresponding positions.
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