Teacher resources and professional development across the curriculum

Teacher professional development and classroom resources across the curriculum

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Unit Chapters
Proteins & Proteomics
Evolution & Phylogenetics
Microbial Diversity
Emerging Infectious Diseases
Why Do Diseases Emerge?
The Human Body as an Ecosystem
The Emergence of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria
Mechanisms of Resistance
Microbial Adaptation and Change
Lateral Gene Transfer
Travel, Demographics, and Susceptibility
New Technologies
Animal Reservoirs
Insect Vectors
Climate and Weather
Preventing and Controlling Emerging Infectious Disease
Genetics of Development
Cell Biology & Cancer
Human Evolution
Biology of Sex & Gender
Genetically Modified Organisms
Mechanisms of Resistance

Various adaptations provide bacteria with antibiotic resistance. Mutations in a target protein that affect binding of an antibiotic to that protein may confer resistance. If an antibiotic inhibits a metabolic pathway and an alternate one becomes available, resistance can occur. Some antibiotic-resistant bacteria make enzymes that destroy drugs; others alter pores in the cell membrane so an antibiotic can no longer enter. Some resistant strains have developed mechanisms for actively pumping antibiotics out of the bacterial cell. The genes for antibiotic resistance are sometimes found on plasmids. The transfer of these plasmids among bacteria facilitates the spread of antibiotic resistance within and between bacterial populations.

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