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Unit Chapters
Genomics
Proteins & Proteomics
Evolution & Phylogenetics
Microbial Diversity
Emerging Infectious Diseases
HIV & AIDS
Genetics of Development
Genes and Development
Differentiation and Genetic Cascades
The Details of Gene Expression
Establishing the Gradient and Coordinate Genes
Responses to the Concentration Gradient
Homeotic Genes
Cell Lineage Mapping and C. Elegans
Fate Maps
Cell-Cell Communication and Signal Transduction
Conservation of the Homeobox
Conservation of the "Control Switch" Gene for Eyes
A Brief Look at Plant Development
Stem Cells
Coda
Cell Biology & Cancer
Human Evolution
Neurobiology
Biology of Sex & Gender
Biodiversity
Genetically Modified Organisms
Fate Maps

Figure 7a. Blastula
What Sulston and his colleagues did with tracing the entire cell lineage would be exceedingly difficult for the vast majority of organisms. Most multicellular organisms have far more cells than C. elegans. Moreover, most don't have a transparent body or rather sedentary cells during development. Nevertheless, for several different kinds of organisms, researchers have been able to determine the type of tissue that cells in developing embryos will become; fate maps are diagrammatic representations of this (Fig. 7).

Scientists have been able to create fate maps
Figure 7b. Fate map
for several organisms (such as the sea urchin) since the early decades of the twentieth century. To construct fate maps researchers use various methods, including removing cells from embryos. If the adult that developed from these embryos is missing specific tissues, researchers infer that the removed cells would have become those missing tissues. Researchers can also use a variety of stains to trace cells in the developing embryo.

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