Teacher resources and professional development across the curriculum

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Animations
Antigenic Shift Antigenic Shift
The influenza virus can mutate through antigenic shift, causing new outbreaks to occur in human populations.
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Bacterial Conjugation Bacterial Conjugation
Antibiotic resistance genes can be shared between bacteria through a sex pilus.
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Bacterial Transformation Bacterial Transformation
Antibiotic resistance genes can be obtained by the uptake of free-floating DNA released from a bacterial cell that has died.
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Biocomplexity Biocomplexity

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BLAST Search BLAST Search
A depiction of what happens in a BLAST search in the GenBank database.
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Cladogram Cladogram
An example of a cladogram, which depicts the relatedness of taxonomic groups; uses the order Cetacea, whales, as an example.
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Creation of a Transgenic Animal Creation of a Transgenic Animal
The steps involved using nuclear transfer to create a transgenic goat that produces a human protein in its milk.
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Creation of Golden Rice Creation of Golden Rice
A diagrammatic representation of the enzymatic pathway constructed to produce beta carotene in the endosperm of a rice plant.
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Cyclopamine Cyclopamine
The normal Hedgehog signaling pathway is blocked by the receptor antagonist cyclopamine.
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Dilution effect Dilution Effect
As suburbs developed in New England, the forest habitat became more patchy, resulting in the disappearance of some species and the proliferation of mice -- which are the reservoir for the Lyme spirochete -- and ticks, which carry the disease to humans. This increased the proportion of infected ticks, and led to an increase in human disease.
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Dispersal of Malaria and Chloroquine Resistance Dispersal of Malaria and Chloroquine Resistance
Comparison of the distribution of the malaria parasite and chloroquine resistance around the world. When the maps are overlaid, it is shown that there is chloroquine resistance nearly everywhere the malaria parasite exists.
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Efflux Pump Efflux Pump
An efflux pump is a mechanism used by bacteria to eject antibiotics before they can affect the cell.
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Four Gene DNA Vaccine Four-Gene DNA Vaccine
Creating a DNA vaccine for malaria will involve producing antigens from several stages of the parasite's life cycle.
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Genetic Data Genetic Data
Demonstrates how scientists use genetic data to build a phylogeny and determine relatedness between a group of organisms.
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Haplotypes Haplotypes
A brief description of the concept of a haplotype.
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Hedgehog Gradient Hedgehog Gradient
The level of Hedgehog protein a cell binds during development can influence its fate.
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Hedgehog Signaling Hedgehog Signaling
The Hedgehog signaling pathway triggers expression of other developmentally important genes.
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HIV DNA Vaccine HIV DNA Vaccine
A brief description of how DNA might be used as a vaccine for HIV.
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HIV Infection HIV Infection
A description of HIV structure and how it infects T cells.
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HIV Receptors HIV Receptors
Still one: The two distinct co-receptors on the surface of T cells are CXCR4 and CCR5, both requiring CD4 for the entry of the HIV virus. CCR5 is the receptor used for entry in the asymptomatic phase; during the symptomatic phase the viruses can use the CXCR4 receptor. Still two: There is a mutant CCR5 gene that fails to produce a functioning receptor, explaining the inability of some people to be infected by HIV.
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Homeobox Homeobox
The color-shaded regions represent homeotic genes called Hox genes. The dark band within each gene represents a 180-base-pair region called the homeodomain.
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Homeodomain Homeodomain
A 3-D model of a protein with a homeodomain, a "helix-turn-helix" motif that acts as a transcription factor by binding directly to DNA to turn on other genes.
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Hominoid Family Tree Hominoid Family Tree
Family tree of hominoids, including the apes and man.
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How a Proto-oncogene Becomes an Oncogene How a Proto-Oncogene Becomes an Oncogene
A depiction of some types of mutations that can occur to turn a proto-oncogene into an oncogene.
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Human Fossil Bush Human Family Bush
The "Hominid Family Bush" made up of modern humans, their ancestors, and their now-extinct relatives.
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Human Migration Hypotheses Human Migration Hypotheses
Most scientists agree that an early hominid species evolved in Africa and spread across the Old World. After that, there is still some debate between the Multiregional hypothesis and the Out of Africa (or Replacement) hypothesis as to how modern humans came to evolve and populate the globe.
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Immune System Overview Immune System Overview
An overview of the specific immune system.
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Increased Receptor Sensitivity Increased Receptor Sensitivity
In LTP, it is now known that the postsynaptic neuron becomes more sensitive to neurotransmitter in a variety of ways. One way is that phophorylation of the glutamate receptor causes it to pass more excitatory ions upon subsequent stimulation.
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Influenza Infection Influenza Infection
Description of how the influenza virus infects a cell, and the role of hemagglutinin in the release of RNA from the viral core.
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Long-Term Potentiation Long-Term Potentiation
In LTP, neurons continue to fire at an elevated rate, even though the stimulus has returned to normal.
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LTP Mechanisms LTP Mechanisms
The two main hypotheses to explain LTP are presynaptic, in which increased neurotransmitter is released; and postsynaptic, in which sensitivity to neurotransmitter is somehow increased.
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Malarial Infection Malarial Infection
Description of the malarial life cycle within the human body.
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Mass Spectrometer Mass Spectrometer
A depiction of what happens inside a mass spectrometer.
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Microarray Experiment Microarray Experiment
A depiction of a typical microarray experiment to discover which genes are expressed in a given sample.
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Mitochondrial DNA Mitochondrial DNA
A 3-D animation of the way that a zygote receives nuclear, or genomic, DNA from both parents (sperm and egg cells) but inherits mitochondrial DNA only from the mother.
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Mitochondrial Eve Mitochondrial Eve
This shows how one female ancestor passed on her mitochondrial DNA to everyone living today. This woman, called "Mitochondrial Eve," probably lived only 200,000–-300,000 years ago.
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Neuronal Stem Cells Neuronal Stem Cells
Fred Gage has found that new neurons are formed in two areas of the brain: the hippocampus (shown in yellow) and in the subventricular zone (in light blue).
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New Theoretical Approach in Whale Phylogeny New Theoretical Approach in Whale Phylogeny
A phylogeny depicting the new picture of whale ancestry.
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Open Reading Frame Open Reading Frame
A brief description of the concept of an open reading frame (ORF).
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p53?s Role in the Cell p53's Role in the Cell
Shows various roles that p53 plays in the cell to protect the genome of the organism.
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Recombinant DNA Recombinant DNA
The steps involved in genetically modifying a plant.
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Regulatory Hypothesis Regulatory Hypothesis
This animation illustrates the experiments that Ajit Varki, Wolf Enard, and Svente Paabo carried out to compare the gene expression between chimpanzees, humans, and an outgroup, the Rhesus monkey. While gene expression was similar between humans and chimps in the liver and blood, they showed very different patterns of gene expression in the brain.
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Retinoic Acid Retinoic Acid
A retinoic acid gradient controls the activation of many developmentally important genes. Disruptions in the embryo's retinoic acid levels can lead to malformation of the embryo.
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Reward Pathway Reward Pathway
The main structures that make up the reward pathway are the ventral tegmental area, the nucleus accumbens (both shown in purple), the amygdala (in green), and the prefrontal cortex (in grey).
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Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs)
An explanation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).
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Spatial and Temporal Colinearity Spatial and Temporal Colinearity
Hox genes display spatial colinearity: genes at one end of the chromosome are expressed at the head end of an embryo, while genes at the other end are expressed toward the tail end. Vertebrate Hox genes also show temporal colinearity: genes at the head end are expressed before those at the tail end.
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Species Richness vs. Lyme Disease Species Richness vs. Lyme Disease
Ostfeld's study found that as species richness declined, the incidence of Lyme disease increased.
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Synapse Synapse
Neurons have two ends—dendrites and an axon—which they use to communicate with one another via neurotransmitters.
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Synaptic Vesicles Synaptic Vesicles
Synaptic vesicles fuse with the presynaptic membrane, freeing neurotransmitter molecules into the synaptic space.
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Telomeres Telomeres
Shows the concept of how the ends of chromosomes, the telomeres, shorten each time the cell divides.
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Test Strip ? Cedar Creek Test Strip—Cedar Creek
Each year, David Tilman collects the plant matter from a strip (10 cm by 3 m) from each of his experimental plots to examine the effects of species diversity on biomass.
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The Biofilm Lifecycle The Biofilm Lifecycle
An animated description of biofilm formation, growth, communication, and dispersal.
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The Cell Cycle: Cyclins and Checkpoints The Cell Cycle: Cyclins and Checkpoints
A depiction of the cell cycle and role that cyclins play in the process. This animation also shows the role of checkpoints in regulating the cell cycle.
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The Evolution of Protein-Protein Interactions The Evolution of Protein-Protein Interactions
A depiction of how evolution can affect the way proteins interact with other proteins.
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The Signal Transduction Pathway The Signal Transduction Pathway
A depiction of the signal transduction pathway that is involved with the growth process of the cell.
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The Three Domains The Three Domains
A cladogram comparing the three domains of life; specifically, the differences between the archaea and bacteria.
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The Three-Dimensional Structure of a Protein The Three-Dimensional Structure of a Protein
A depiction of the subsets of a protein structure.
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Theory of DNA Repair in Deinococcus Theory of DNA Repair in Deinococcus
A depiction of the DNA repair process that Jonathon Eisen postulates might be happening in Deinococcus radiodurans after it is exposed to radiation.
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Tilman?s Experimental Plots Tilman's Experimental Plots
Tilman compares plots with few species (on left) to those with more species (as on the right). He has found that more diverse plots recover from disturbances like drought more quickly than those with fewer species.
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Tree of Life ? Lateral Gene Transfer Diagram Tree of Life—Lateral Gene Transfer Diagram
Revised "tree of life" with all groups divided into their domains. Includes information about lateral gene transfer and the endosymbiosis of bacteria that became mitochondria and chloroplasts.
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Virtual Ligand Screening in Drug DesignVirtual Ligand Screening in Drug Design
Shows how a computer program can be used to fit potential drug molecules into a site of interest on a protein.
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