Teacher resources and professional development across the curriculum
Teacher professional development and classroom resources across the curriculum
The development of the United States was shaped by international contexts: relations with various Native American nations, revolutions in Haiti and France, and another war with Great Britain.
The American Revolution had global repercussions. It helped inspire movements for political independence and republican government in France, Haiti, and elsewhere. Some Americans saw in these movements the spread of liberty; others were alarmed. The French Revolution addressed questions of equality that the American Revolution had largely avoided—and with a great deal more blood and gore. The Haitian Revolution raised the specter of slave rebellion.
The United States also faced practical difficulties in foreign relations. Divisions over how to react to France and England split the young nation into two parties. In general, conservatives sided with England; those who hated royal despotism more than they feared anarchy sided with France. Neither foreign power expressed much respect for American sovereignty. National leaders faced a very different set of problems in the West, where more and more citizens insisted on taking land belonging to indigenous groups—tribes that constituted separate and independent nations in their own right.