Mapping Initial Encounters
Initial encounters occurred over three centuries and a vast
More and more Europeans and Africans came to North America beginning in the
sixteenth century. Africans—sometimes free, but often enslaved—continued to form
a significant minority of many exploration parties. Portugal, France, England, and the
Netherlands joined Spain in the western hemisphere.
The indigenous tribes that these Europeans encountered were extremely diverse. Most
were hunters and gatherers, but some practiced intensive agriculture. Some traded
extensively, while others were more isolated.
How We Followed the Corn Route
Ãlvar NÃºÃ±ez Cabeza de Vaca,La RelaciÃ³n, the narrative of Ãlvar NÃºÃ±ez Cabeza de Vaca (1555),Chapter 31. Courtesy of the Southwestern Writers Collection, Alkek Library, Texas State University-San Marcos.
Father Jacques Marquette, "Unfinished Journal Addressed to the Reverend Father Claude Dablon, Superior of the Missions," In The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents. Edited by Reuben Gold Thwaites. Originally published 1675. (New York:Pagent). www.archive.org/details/jesuits42jesuuoft.
Ruling Chiefs of Hawai'i
Samuel Kamakau, Ruling Chiefs of Hawai'i. (Translated by Mary Kawena Pukui, Thomas G. Thrum, Lahilahi Webb, Emma Davidson Taylor, and John Wise. (Honolulu: Kamehameha Schools Press, 1961), 91-93.
Zuni Tsa'Kwayna Katsina Doll
Shannon L. Parker, ZUNI TSA'KWAYNA KATSINA DOLL (n.d. [collected in 1890]). Courtesy of the School of American Research, catalogue number SAR.1999-9-512
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