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Excerpted from Declaration of Pedro Naranjo of the Queres Nation. [Place of the Rio del Norte, December 19, 1682]

Declaration of Pedro Naranjo of the Queres Nation. [Place of the Rio del Norte, December 19, 1682]

Asked whether he knows the reason or motives which the Indians of this kingdom had for rebelling, forsaking the law of God and obedience to his Majesty, and committing such grave and atrocious crimes, and who were the leaders and principal movers, and by whom and how it was ordered; and why they burned the images, temples, crosses, rosaries, and things of divine worship, committing such atrocities as killing priests, Spaniards, women, and children, and the rest that he might know touching the question, he said that since the government of Senor General Hernando Ugarte y la Concha they have planned to rebel on various occasions through conspiracies of the Indian sorcerers, and that although in some pueblos the messages were accepted, in other parts they would not agree to it; and that it is true that during the government of the said senor general seven or eight Indians were hanged for this same cause, whereupon the unrest subsided. Some time thereafter [the conspirators] sent from the pueblo of Los Taos through the pueblos of the custodia two deerskins with some pictures on them signifying conspiracy after their manner, in order to convoke the people to a new rebellion, and the said deerskins passed to the province of Moqui, where they refused to accept them. The pact which they had been forming ceased for the time being, but they always kept in their hearts the desire to carry it out, so as to live as they are living today. Finally, in the past years, at the summons of an Indian named Popé who is said to have communication with the devil, it happened that in an estufa of the pueblo of Los Taos there appeared to the said Popé three figures of Indians who never came out of the estufa. They gave the said Popé to understand that they were going underground to the lake of Copala. He saw these figures emit fire from all the extremities of their bodies, and that one of them was called Caudi, another Tilini, and the other Tleume; and these three beings spoke to the said Popé, who was in hiding from the secretary, Francisco Xavier, who wished to punish him as a sorcerer.

Charles Wilson Hackett, Revolt of the Pueblo Indians of New Mexico and Otermin's Attempted Reconquest, 1680-1682 (Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico, 1942), Volume 2: 245-49.

Creator Spanish officials interviewing Naranjo
Context The Spanish were reeling from the Pueblo Revolt.
Audience Spanish officials
Purpose To understand the cause and the course of the revolt

Historical Significance

The Pueblo Revolt horrified Spanish leaders in North America, and late in 1681 they set out to reconquer the Native tribes. They soon captured Pedro Naranjo, a Pueblo who spoke Spanish, and interrogated him about the origins of the uprising of the previous year.

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