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America's History in the Making

Resource Archive: Search Results

The Ultimate Cause

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Frank A. Nankivell, THE ULTIMATE CAUSE (Puck, Dec. 19, 1900, cover). Courtesy of the Library of Congress.

Creator Frank A. Nankivell, artist
Context Anti-imperialism of labor unions
Audience Readers of Puck magazine
Purpose To satirize the anti-immigration sentiment of American labor unions

Historical Significance

In 1898, the American Anti-Imperialist League organized to protest the annexation of the Philippines. Around 1900, Puck satirized American political and social issues through political cartoons on the magazine's front cover. Anti-imperialists such as these opposed imperialism for economic, legal, and moral reasons. Samuel Gompers was against imperialism out of a fear that the "hordes of Chinese and the semi-savage races" would become part of the United States, take away jobs, and affect the wages of American workers.

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