Esteban Katsina doll

Creator: Unknown

Context: This doll, created sometime between 1830 and 1890 by a Zuni Indian craftsman in the southwestern United States, is said to represent Esteban, a dark-skinned Moroccan slave who led a Spanish party into the region and was killed by the Zuni after telling them that white "katsina," or children of the sun, would soon arrive in their lands.

Audience: Children of the Zuni tribes.

Purpose: To frighten disobedient Zuni children.

Historical Significance: This doll offers a Zuni interpretation of one of the first known appearances of a dark-skinned African within their community.